VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):食用色素:天然还是人工?
日期:2018-12-25 17:25

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Food Colors: Natural or Not?
The color of food can send important messages about its quality.
Now, many food companies, including McDonald's and Kellogg's, say they will stop adding artificial colors to their products.
McDonald's announced in September that it had removed artificial colors from many of its hamburgers. Kellogg's has promised to remove them from its cereals by the end of this year.
What people accept as a normal color for food can change from place to place and over time. Until the 1980s, Americans expected pistachio nuts to be red. Pistachios were mostly imported from places where the nuts were dyed to cover spots.
Now, most pistachios sold in the United States are grown in the U.S. and have natural-colored shells.
But it is not just processed and boxed foods that create illusions with color.
Cheeses
Many cheddar cheeses contain a substance added called annatto, a plant extract commonly used for coloring.
Elizabeth Chubbuck, of Murray's Cheese in New York, said adding color comes from the time when cheesemakers in England took the butterfat from milk to make butter. The leftover milk was whiter. So, she said, cheesemakers added substances to recreate butterfat's golden color.
Another cheese that sometimes gets color added is mozzarella.
Sara Burnett is director of food policy at Panera Bread. She said mozzarella sometimes gets its bright white color from titanium dioxide, a common substance taken from nature.
Cathy Strange buys international cheeses for the food seller Whole Foods. She said the whitening is done because most mozzarella made in the U.S comes from cow's milk, which can have a yellow color.
She said in Italy, mozzarella is sometimes made with milk from water buffalo. The milk is whiter because the animal cannot digest beta carotene, an orange nutrient in many fruits and vegetables.
Egg yolks
Many cooks think darker egg yolks are fresher or healthier. But the color may be the result of marigold petals, alfalfa or coloring products in food for chickens.
Elizabeth Bobeck is a professor at Iowa State University. She says that yolk color is mainly caused by the carotenoids that chickens eat. Carotenoids are a natural coloring in plants. "It's easy to change yolk colors" by simply changing what chickens eat, she said.
Bobeck added that darker yolks are not necessarily healthier. This belief may come from the idea that yolks are darker when chickens are fed fresh plants.
Salmon
In salmon, a bright pink color is a sign of freshness to those buying the fish. Experts say this is why farmed salmon may have been fed food containing a man-made substance to make the flesh pinker.
The Food and Drug Administration notes that manufacturers have to declare on labeling if non-natural colors were used for salmon. For example, farmed salmon at Costco Wholesale stores is labeled "color added through feed."
I'm Jonathan Evans.

重点解析

1.artificial colors 人工色素

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You don't even need to use artificial colors.
你根本用不着人工色素Lt|*hsP5u*71ay|kK|D6

2.water buffalo 水牛

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A herd of water buffalo charges down a dirt road in rural Laos.
一群水牛在老挝的一条乡村土路上横冲直撞6(4QOy8B60!K~mwY+u

3.food colors 食物色素

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Synthetic food colors are a class of food additives which are widely used in food production.
食用合成色素是食品工业中广泛使用的一类食品添加剂LrD#=FzFsC9^pX9b;W

4.be made with 由...制成

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For breakfast I have porridge made with water, to which I add raisins.
早餐我喝用水煮的麦片粥,还往里加葡萄干gNpW^BCXvJ

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5.Kellogg's has promised to remove them from its cereals by the end of this year.

by the end of this year 今年年底

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By the end of this year I'll have paid off all the money I borrowed from the bank.
到今年年底,我将还清所有我向银行借的钱jw_C%i@[7arB,#z;vI,
And by the end of this year that number will be cut in half.
而到今年年底,这个数字将减少一半#ote9CB3=9.BO8rOi;%m

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6.What people accept as a normal color for food can change from place to place and over time.

over time 随着时间逝去

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Ideas about the social significance of religion have changed over time.
关于宗教的社会意义的看法已经随着时间的变迁而改变hBs6nzjTO*,~Js3AMjZk
Ground rents are likely to escalate over time.
地租以后可能会逐渐上涨mm5Bi_MZ8Ulw8t1TCk0

参考译文

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食用色素:天然还是人工?
食物颜色可传达出有关食物质量的重要信息cyLk9H1K*XLc
如今,包括麦当劳和家乐氏在内的多家食品公司表示,他们将停止在产品中添加人工色素djRulwrOAt*;C7q
今年9月,麦当劳宣布已经从许多汉堡中去除人工色素.|)(IMO7OhsX*Kk^l。家乐氏也承诺今年年底前将这些人工色素从谷类食品中去除u-u@Fn9!ll
人们认为食物的正常颜色会随着时间和地点的变化而改变iT|XQztB~;MEUw。直到20世纪80年代,美国人还以为开心果是红色的~DQ6;A&FXM7]Ge)H*6。开心果大多是从将坚果染色来遮盖斑点的地区进口的o2~yA1ZS]Td
如今,大多数在美国销售的开心果都是在美国种植的,外壳是天然的颜色f+j@a.Q!9Ll_b*wyZ
但是,并非只有加工过的盒装食品会让人产生颜色错觉&mBW4*r(&3d=J~XHzf~p

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食品色素.jpg
很多切达干酪都添加了一种叫做红木的物质,这是一种通常用于着色的植物提取物F9,=(PFyho1AHd_xkNA,
纽约墨雷奶酪的伊丽莎白·查巴克(Elizabeth Chubbuck)表示,添加颜色的历史可以追溯到英国奶酪制造商从牛奶中提取乳脂制作黄油的时代At-TyNouPe%%rZv。剩下的牛奶颜色更白[fv6|@DB31]Yn,!AXkF。所以,她说,奶酪制造商添加了一些物质来恢复乳脂的金色@-Y[p0+52E
另一种有时添加色素的奶酪是马苏里拉奶酪&r[Nr-,cRL
萨拉·伯内特(Sara Burnett)是帕尼罗面包店食品政策主管Y]#BFv(kS)V6orm|2。她说,马苏里拉奶酪有时会添加二氧化钛而呈现亮白色,二氧化钛是一种自然界常见的物质ZL1@n(G_%7t
凯西·斯特兰奇(Cathy Strange)为食品销售商全食公司采购国际奶酪k_o)=R7!Qm-+Ctgs_。她说,之所以要增白是因为大多数美国产的马苏里拉都由普通牛奶制成,而这种牛奶呈黄色8uKg2U1SZfMoOlt+8s
她说,在意大利,马苏里拉奶酪有时是用水牛的牛奶制作的a6bZE1s%=pJF5h#_oEMN。这种牛奶颜色更白是因为水牛无法消化吸收β-胡萝卜素,而β-胡萝卜素是许多水果和蔬菜所含的一种橙色营养物质5aVSa.ej#GI
许多厨师认为,深色蛋黄更新鲜或健康W4@vW(^XaRkr。然而,这种颜色可能是添加金盏花花瓣、苜蓿或鸡肉食品中色素的结果&ONDKbqug-;YM^Sma
伊丽莎白·博贝克(Elizabeth Bobeck)是爱荷华州立大学的教授4_5kV7V3w*ukP*F-O。她说蛋黄的颜色主要是由鸡吃的类胡萝卜素引起的WKT~zH%|@toFz!Ff@。类胡萝卜素是一种植物天然色素BkQuzoAGasrGPHc。她说,只要简单地改变一下鸡的饮食,“很容易就改变蛋黄颜色”(DraI|t~EQjZn~_,,J
博贝克补充说,深色蛋黄不一定更健康c7,Q|t[wxX.5z%_1YoI7。这一观点可能来自这样一种说法:用新鲜植物喂养鸡,蛋黄颜色会变暗],))*D7@(AKbu3@w9rl
对于购买三文鱼的人来说,亮粉色就意味着新鲜~!Nq~N4%2f#。专家指出,这就是为什么养殖的三文鱼可能被喂食含人造物质的饲料,以便让鱼肉变粉红z.g!A(17|J~BakX
美国食品和药物管理局指出,如果三文鱼使用非天然颜色,制造商必须在标签处加以说明z~7zui3;kmKgw4sp。例如,好市多(Costco)批发商店养殖的三文鱼都贴上“通过饲料添加颜色”的标注pNJ96y]BTCS=0
乔纳森·埃文斯为您播报8VsDW|sL)4~kc

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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