China and the United States struck a truce in their trade war at the G-20 summit last night. The White House says it has delayed slapping on more tariffs, and China says it will buy more from the United States. We're joined now by NPR's Jim Zarroli. Morning.
JIM ZARROLI, BYLINE: Good morning, Lulu.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: I feel like we may have seen this movie before, but take us through what's been agreed to here.
ZARROLI: Well, this summer, as you might recall, the Trump administration imposed a 10 percent tariff on $200 billion worth of Chinese imports. And it said it would increase that to 25 percent by January 1 if China didn't agree to change some of its trade practices. So last night, President Trump met with Chinese President Xi Jinping at the summit in Argentina. And at the end, the White House said it had agreed to put off the increase in the tariffs for 90 days to give both sides time to work out a deal. It wants China to address issues like intellectual property theft. The White House also said that China has agreed to buy what's being called a very substantial amount of U.S. products right away to reduce the trade imbalance. That will include a lot of agricultural products like soybeans.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: And that's quite important, of course, because, you know, soybeans is a big thing here. So how does this change the current trade tensions between the two countries? Is this significant?
ZARROLI: Yes, I think it — I mean, the U.S. and China have really been at odds for months about trade. And the two sides have really — haven't really been meeting for a long time. It was, like, kind of like a game of chicken. Meanwhile, you were seeing a lot of trade start to be affected. A lot of U.S. companies were paying more for products they import from China. Companies like, you know, automakers and textile companies, toy makers — they were all being hurt. China suddenly stopped buying American agriculture products like soybeans.
ZARROLI: So this really reduces the tensions considerably.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: Why do you think the United States and China have suddenly agreed to back down? It wasn't a given. There was a lot of speculation before this meeting that nothing would come of it.
ZARROLI: Well, I think the thing is that so much is at stake. I mean, China, for instance, you know, grows really fast, but it's seeing its growth slow. And it needs access to U.S. markets. And the tariffs threaten to cut into that. Here in the U.S., I mean, the tariffs were really beginning to affect the economy. You saw the stock market fall quite a bit in recent weeks. I mean, Trump likes to boast about stock prices going up during his time in office. But prices have really fallen since early October, and the trade tensions are part of that. So you can expect the financial markets to react pretty positively to this news tomorrow.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: Not to mention the political implications. In another development yesterday, President Trump signaled that he would be shortly pulling out of the North American Free Trade Agreement — or NAFTA. What's going on?
ZARROLI: You know, this is brinksmanship, I think. Remember, on Friday, Trump signed this new trade deal with Canada and Mexico that's meant to replace NAFTA. The three countries have been working on it for months. It doesn't go into effect, though, unless Congress approves it. And it's not clear Congress is ready to do that, especially the Democrats, who are about to control the House. This is Trump's way of saying, you better pass this, or I'll get rid of NAFTA. And then we won't have any trade pact at all. And that would just be a disaster.
GARCIA-NAVARRO: That's NPR's Jim Zarroli. Thank you.
ZARROLI: You're welcome.
昨晚，中国和美国在G20峰会期间达成贸易战停火协议 。白宫表示，美国将推迟加征关税的举措，中国则将购买更多美国产品 。现在我们来连线NPR记者吉姆·扎罗里 。早上好 。
扎罗里：你可能还记得，今年夏天，特朗普政府对价值2000亿美元中国进口产品征收了10%的关税 。政府表示，如果中国不同意改变其某些贸易行为，那税率将从1月1日起增加至25% 。而昨晚，特朗普总统和中国国家主席习近平在阿根廷举行的G20峰会上进行了会谈 。白宫表示，最终的结果是，美国同意将加征关税的举措推迟90天，给双方达成协议的时间 。美国希望中国解决盗窃知识产权等问题 。白宫还表示，中方同意立即购买大量美国产品，以减少贸易不平衡 。这些产品包括大豆等农产品 。
扎罗里：我认为有重要意义，美国和中国在贸易问题上的分歧已持续了数个月 。双方也有很长时间没有举行会谈了 。这就像是一场博弈 。同时，大家可以看到很多生意开始受影响 。许多美国企业在进口中国产品上的支出不断增加 。汽车制造商、纺织企业和玩具制造商均受到了损害 。而且，中国突然停止购买大豆等美国农产品 。
加西亚·纳瓦罗：在你看来，为什么美国和中国突然同意做出让步？这并不是已知事实 。在双方会谈之前，很多人猜测会谈不会有任何结果 。
扎罗里：我认为这是因为有很多利害攸关的事情 。就中国来说，中国的发展速度非常快，但是现在其增速开始放缓 。中国需要进入美国市场 。而关税可能会阻碍市场准入 。再来说美国，关税已经开始对经济造成影响 。最近几周，美国股市跌幅严重 。特朗普喜欢吹嘘股价在他执政期间一直在上涨 。但是现在，股价自10月初以来一直在下跌，部分原因要归咎于贸易紧张局势 。因此，我们可以期待金融市场明天会对这则新闻作出相当积极的反应 。
加西亚·纳瓦罗：更不用提其中的政治含义了 。昨天还有另一项进展，特朗普总统表示他将马上退出北美自贸协定（简称NAFTA） 。发生了什么事？
扎罗里：我认为这是边缘政策 。要知道，特朗普在上周五与加拿大和墨西哥签署了一份新贸易协议，这项协议将代替北美自贸协定 。美墨加三国数个月以来一直致力于商定新协议 。不过，新协议要得到美国国会的批准之后才能生效 。目前并不清楚国会是否会批准这项协议，尤其是在民主党人即将控制众议院的情况下 。特朗普的意思是，你们最好通过这项协议，否则我就退出北美自贸协定 。这样我们就没有任何贸易协定了 。那将会成为灾难 。
加西亚·纳瓦罗：以上是NPR新闻的吉姆·扎罗里带来的报道 。谢谢你 。
1. back down 放弃（主张、要求、承诺等）；打退堂鼓；
The United States had no intention of backing down in its bitter row over farm subsidies.
2. boast about 吹嘘；炫耀；夸耀；
She is always bo asting about how wonderful her children are.
3. not to mention 不用说；更不必说；
He has two big houses in this country, not to mention his villa in France.
4. go into effect 开始实施；生效；有效；
The Senate, however, must approve all treaties and confirm the appointments before they can go into effect.