Oxford’s Word of the Year Is…Toxic
The Oxford Dictionaries' Word of the Year is...toxic.
The British publisher defines the adjective toxic as "poisonous." The word first appeared in English in the 1650s. It came from the Latin word toxicus, meaning "poisoned."
The Latin word itself actually came from the Greek term toxon, meaning "bow." In ancient Greece, fighters with bows would put poison on the points of their arrows.
Why was toxic chosen?
Oxford chooses a Word of the Year that best describes the mood of the past year. The word also should "have lasting potential" as a term of cultural importance.
Oxford said its data showed a 45 percent rise in searches for the word toxic on its website in 2018.
The searches began with the toxic chemical poisoning of former Russian spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter in Britain. Then, in Syria, a toxic chemical weapon attack killed at least 40 people and led to a missile strike from the United States.
The public also was concerned about toxic gas after a series of hurricanes and other storms. Others worried about the burning of toxic waste in India and toxic air pollution around the world. In the American state of Florida, huge numbers of dead fish washed up on the beaches because of toxic algae.
But the increasingly common phrase "toxic environment" has nothing to do with pollution. Oxford says people searched for this phrase in connection to unpleasant workplace environments, including the worldwide walkout of Google employees. They were protesting sexual wrongdoing, unequal pay and discrimination.
Others wanted to know about toxic relationships, especially connected to the #MeToo movement against sex abuse and the confirmation hearing of Brett Kavanaugh as a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.
And the runners-up are...
The word gaslighting was another top word of 2018, Oxford says. It defines the word as "the action of manipulating someone by psychological means into accepting a false depiction of reality or doubting their own sanity."
It says the word has been used to describe claims by the administration of President Donald Trump that "the media are spreading ‘fake news.'" Gaslighting is also used to describe the British government position on Brexit – Britain's withdrawal from the European Union.
I'm Bryan Lynn.
1.ancient Greece 古希腊
They believed ancient Greece and Rome were vital sources of learning.
2.fake news 假新闻
The site teases the fake news that it will shut down at midnight.
3.connected to 与...有关
The dispute is not directly connected to the negotiations.
4.searches for 搜寻
He often searches for information through Google, Yahoo or Baidu.
5.In the American state of Florida, huge numbers of dead fish washed up on the beaches because of toxic algae.
huge numbers of 大量的
Huge numbers of these children are leaving school.
Even in China's richest city, huge numbers of people eke out a very modest existence.
6.The public also was concerned about toxic gas after a series of hurricanes and other storms.
a series of 一系列的
The students have put forward a series of questions.
A series of technical foul-ups delayed the launch of the new product.
这家英国出版社将形容词“toxic”定义为“有毒的 。”这个词最早出现于英语中是在17世纪50年代，它来自于拉丁语单词toxicus，意思是“中毒的” 。
这一拉丁词汇实际上来自于希腊语toxon，意为“弓箭” 。在古希腊，弓箭手会把毒药涂抹在箭头上 。
牛津词典选择最能描述过去一年氛围的单词作为年度词汇 。作为具有文化重要性的术语，该词也应该“具备持久的潜力” 。
这些搜索始于前俄罗斯间谍谢尔盖·斯基里帕尔及其女儿在英国中毒的事件 。随后，在叙利亚，一场有毒化学武器袭击造成至少40人死亡，并导致美国发动导弹袭击（报复） 。
一系列飓风和其它风暴过后，引发了公众对于有毒气体的担忧 。其他人则担心印度燃烧有毒废料以及世界各地的有毒空气污染 。在美国佛罗里达州，由于有毒的藻类，大量死鱼被冲上海滩 。
但是，日益常见的“有毒环境”一词与污染无关 。牛津词典表示，人们搜索这句话是关于有害的工作环境，包括谷歌员工的全球罢工 。他们抗议性骚扰、薪酬不平等和歧视 。
Gaslighting（煤气灯）是另一个2018年热门词汇 。牛津词典对该词的解释是：“通过心理手段操纵某人，使其接受对现实的虚假描述或怀疑自己的理智 。”
牛津词典称，这个词一直被用于描述特朗普政府断言的“媒体在传播虚假新闻” 。Gaslighting也被用于形容英国政府在脱欧一事上的立场 。