PBS高端访谈:复活节岛旅游业带来的困惑
日期:2018-10-08 17:17

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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JUDY WOODRUFF: Next, we conclude our series on the growing plastic problem. It is now considered one of the largest environmental threats to both humans and animals. Jeffrey Brown takes us to a tiny island in the South Pacific that is increasingly dealing with more and more of the world's trash.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Tiny pieces of plastic in the sand, larger pieces caught in the rocks, for this cleanup crew, it's a never-ending fight.

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MAN: And this is the reality here.

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JEFFREY BROWN: That's plastic?

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MAN: It's plastic. This is microplastic. This is a rock. This is the plastic.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Ana Maria Gutierrez, a civil engineer who works for the local government, leads the effort..

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ANA MARIA GUTIERREZ, Civil Engineer (through translator): Because the waves hit the coast, the bigger plastics gets smaller and smaller. And it's very difficult to remove them, because you have to move very big rocks along the coast and the trash just gets inserted in them. It's becoming part of nature.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Part of nature, part of this place, but what a place, and what a place to find so much trash, for we are in the middle of the South Pacific on Easter Island, one of the most remote inhabited spots on Earth, some 2,200 miles from the coast of Chile. Called Rapa Nui in the Polynesian language, Easter Island is home to roughly 6,000 residents and some of the most breathtaking sites in the world, including more than 1,000 ancient statues called Moai that date back to as early as 1100 A.D. It's a place of beauty and wonder, but increasingly something else.

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PEDRO EDMUNDS PAOA, Mayor of Hanga Roa: The world is trashing the ocean. And that trash, we are receiving it in our coasts. It's like someone putting a gun in your head and telling you, you must receive that.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Pedro Edmunds Paoa is the longtime mayor of Hanga Roa, the island's one town. He says, because Easter Island is located near what's known as a trash vortex in the middle of the South Pacific Ocean, floating waste is constantly washing ashore.

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PEDRO EDMUNDS PAOA: It's coming from everywhere. It's too much. Every year is more and more.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Also more and more here, people. Easter Island has seen tremendous growth in the last 20 years, especially from tourism, with planes now bringing more than 100,000 visitors every year. That's meant new jobs and more money, but also enormous new challenges.

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PEDRO EDMUNDS PAOA: This place is like being in a big museum of crystal.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Of crystal?

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PEDRO EDMUNDS PAOA: Very fragile. So if you bring in vehicles, you're accelerating the damage on what I call our ancient sacred sites, which is the entire island.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Yes, so more people, more cars, more trash.

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PEDRO EDMUNDS PAOA: More trash.

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JEFFREY BROWN: On an island where virtually everything consumed is imported, local officials now estimate that more than 20 tons of trash are produced every day. One problem, space. There's just one garbage dump on an island that's roughly 63 square miles.

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Civil engineer Ana Maria Gutierrez: ANA MARIA GUTIERREZ (through translator): We only have one place to deposit our garbage because the majority of the territory is a national park, and the community is growing so fast demographically that there's no space for waste treatment or disposal.

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JEFFREY BROWN: The islanders are taking this seriously, and efforts are under way to alleviate the situation, including this recycling plant, home to mountains of plastics, bottles, electronics and much more. Here, waste is crushed, stacked and sorted. Some of it is then shipped or flown to mainland Chile, which governs the island. Alexandra Tuquivera runs the plant, which opened in 2011.

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ALEXANDRA TUQUIVERA, Director, Rapa Nui Recycling (through translator): It's an issue distinctly about changing people's attitude. If we achieved a change in attitude from 20 percent of the people who are already recycling today, we think we can achieve it at 100 percent. But it depends on how we can change those attitudes about this issue.

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JEFFREY BROWN: There is also this, a smaller, but wonderfully creative way to deal with excess waste. Mahani Teave grew up on Easter Island, before leaving to study piano and build an ongoing international concert career. She's now back teaching children and helping to build and run a music school, one made of garbage.

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MAHANI TEAVE, Toki Rapa Nui Music School: We thought, OK, we have the teachers, we have the children, we have the interest. What kind of construction can we do which is in a way will teach the children how to take care of their place and will attend to the problems which we have on this island?

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JEFFREY BROWN: Designed by the American sustainable architect Michael Reynolds, the Rapa Nui School of Music and Arts first opened its doors in 2014.

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MAHANI TEAVE: Two thousand and five hundred tires are in the walls, 40,000 glass bottles, and almost 40,000 cans also. We have the solar panels which provide the electricity. We have rainwater collectors, which provide with 40,000 liters of water.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Today, Teave says the school trains more than 100 students in both classical and traditional music passed down from Rapa Nui ancestors.

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MAHANI TEAVE: We are the descendants of the people who built the statues, and we are a living control. We have our same language which the ancestors spoke back then. We have the culture which they, which was transmitted orally until today. And this is a culture which is dying out because of globalization, because we have not known how to hold onto this. And this is such a big treasure which we have, that we have to take care of it now, because it's still alive.

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JEFFREY BROWN: That kind of pride, says Mayor Edmunds, is the key to balancing rapid growth with protection of the natural environment.

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PEDRO EDMUNDS PAOA: There is something that you must know about our island. The people of this island are very aware of the brand, of the importance of the culture, of how fragile is the island. Rapa Nui, to me, is the perfect example for the world of how you can develop and get to a maximum of utilizing the resources, but at the time, at the same time, how you can destroy it.

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JEFFREY BROWN: Here on Easter Island, the ancestors are watching. For the PBS NewsHour, I'm Jeffrey Brown in the remote South Pacific.

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重点解析

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1.never-ending 无休止的

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The spiral of terrorism becomes never-ending.
恐怖主义活动没完没了,不断升级Hsr9(22^=IF1%GwsIRd

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2.pass down 流传

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This title will only pass down through the male line.
这个头衔将只能传给男性后裔0pxEAGg^oq%ACF9T%vZ

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3.in the middle of 在...中间

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I reached for the lamp, which stood in the middle of the table.
我伸手去够位于桌子中央的灯T&^Lpf!nIe

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4.solar panel 太阳能板

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It is equipped with a sound machine and a solar panel on its lid.
它安装了一个发声器,盖子上还有太阳能板OVCUmYj1TU5)

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5.attend to 处理

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I have more pressing things to attend to.
我有更紧迫的事情要做EJTr3sp~XxL]uThON#3

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参考译文

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朱迪·伍德拉夫:接下来,我们来数一数愈发严重的塑料问题U-nm_N~[BmJ9][f]。塑料问题现在是人们眼中人类和动物面临的最大环境威胁之一+|G*ig-scwMio。杰弗里·布朗将镜头带往南太平洋的一个小岛上,该小岛每天都要处理来自全球各地的垃圾,这个问题愈发严重了cpuGZCDgA_q0UvPz

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杰弗里·布朗:沙土上总是会出现一些细小的塑料,而岩石上的塑料碎片则更大些iw8sj.~TG90.。对于这位清洁人员来说,清理塑料垃圾是永远没有尽头的战斗hLURV[ElB~sk%

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男:这种情况是这里的现实S6Y)lxpm!Bi2e2nvab)h

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杰弗里·布朗:这是塑料吗?

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男:是塑料,这是微塑性Y01^M=EQOPNOA_O[。这是岩石Gk_FgtD-Yp*Ct。这是塑料sE8WMc0ax3;%Qz

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杰弗里·布朗:阿纳·玛利亚·古铁雷斯是一位土木工程师,他在当地政府工作,是清理塑料工作的负责人y5qc(s@,^Uk!fHwM

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阿纳·玛利亚·古铁雷斯,土木工程师(所述经过译员转译):由于海浪会冲刷海岸,所以大一些的塑料会分解的越来越小wYx=f3_5~wnzwuhV!UN。而且这种垃圾很难清理,因为必须要沿着海岸线挪动许多大石块,垃圾都卡在石块中了l7yb_&.E7Bh。垃圾已经成了大自然的部分组成ji0%HY8o^LqD4,TI6

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杰弗里·布朗:垃圾是大自然和这个地方的部分组成物质,但什么样的地方才会有这么多的垃圾呢?毕竟我们是在南太平洋中央的复活节岛上啊,这里可是地球上最偏远、最杳无人烟的地方,距离智利的海岸也有近2200英里KsqObToDn#=MT_zL。在波利尼西亚语里,复活节岛又名拉帕努伊岛L5fcJ!o9dnw[T,h。这里住着近6000人,这里有世界上最动人心魄的一些警官,其中包括1000多个源自古代的摩埃石像,这些石像都来自于公元1000年ZZ,Kz4[%)7。这里是充满美丽和奇妙的地方,但越来越变味儿了h2GskTYUxe%

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佩德罗·埃德蒙兹,安加罗阿市长:全球各地都在污染着海洋-#udAEMCf)mi。而这些垃圾是我们在海岸发现的0uR2P.%*ja,fT9|-ee]。就像有人把枪架在你的脑袋上,然后跟你说,你不得不接受]6j!33mOve~23F

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杰弗里·布朗:佩德罗·埃德蒙兹担任该市的市长已有很长一段时日,这里是这个小岛上的一个镇子PcW#sB((FrfbM。佩德罗说,由于复活节岛坐落在南太平洋中央众人皆知的垃圾漩涡上,所以浮动的垃圾总是冲刷着这里的海岸9@r8R;4.zC08

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佩德罗·埃德蒙兹:垃圾来自各个地方,量太大了x@fZgRR%Qofx。而且每年的量都只增不减RGI~4L+k-f;a

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杰弗里·布朗:而且这里的垃圾也越来越多Z;Z@|(yViwXu。复活节岛过去20年来实现了巨大的发展,尤其是旅游业vq6Qzltoo!Un-LN。如今,每年都有10万多名游客到访此地v)3o(Z,a(A6。这样的数字意味着就业岗位更多了,收入更多了,但也同时带来了许多新的巨大挑战#7tr4g~QT4R)7F

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佩德罗·埃德蒙兹:这个地方就像一个巨大的水晶博物馆|F-5b!!3pr.v[QH.%q

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杰弗里·布朗:水晶的?佩德罗·埃德蒙兹:是的,因为水晶非常脆弱CY|6qV]K^M4Xg)。所以,如果引入更多的车辆,就加速了对古代圣境的破坏,是对整个岛的破坏xnvL%GaS=_

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杰弗里·布朗:是的,所以人越多,车越多,垃圾也就越多b0t=uW^O%7A|(VA.[

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佩德罗·埃德蒙兹:垃圾现在越来越多了^;].KrYwLWd+!3&8

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杰弗里·布朗:这个岛上消耗的一切物品都是进口来的,当地的官员现在估测,每天都有20多吨垃圾产生9v;*|&*NixlvY*Tc(M。还有一个问题就是空间问题BKYn7WdeE!UW%i^4。岛上只有一个垃圾场,大概有63平方英里的面积=!u5;u=~RT=I

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土木工程师,阿纳·玛利亚·古铁雷斯(所述经过译员转译):我们只有一个地方可以处理垃圾,因为大多数土地都被国家公园占了,而当地的人口增长速度奇快,所以已经没有多余的空间可以进行废物处理了L.!^NWUz2)*#kRJ[eS

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杰弗里·布朗:岛上的居民们很重视这个问题,现在大家正在努力缓解当前局势,其中包括这个回收厂_]4(rRt3YS!8Uu-Q3[l^。这个回收厂里有海量的垃圾、塑料瓶、电子废品等06[dK16r.Fmo3S%7b3。在这里,垃圾会在压碎及堆放后得到整理0Q=U9H2ChR|VC_Z|8ik。其中一些会通过海运和空运的方式去往智利,因为智利管辖着这个岛屿C%cW!HCIQ!t。亚历山德拉是这家厂的负责人0|S2mO!+NGhp。这家厂开办于2011年&~T=smm&k590k6z0J

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亚历山德拉,导演,拉帕努伊岛回收厂(所述经过译员转译):这是问题完全在于人们的态度DdDHI7iP;LQ*Aow_;。如果曾几何时如今已经在回收垃圾的人中已经有20%的人态度有了转变,那么我们认为所有人都可以转变态度Lx]Q]PJmNDPkC。但这取决于我们怎样改变大家对这个问题的态度6[RHD42_*QS8

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杰弗里·布朗:此外,我们还有更便捷而又富有创意的方法可以处理过量的垃圾;9)1!9q9~zaztIc9B。蔓哈妮从小在复活节岛上长大,之后她离开这里去学钢琴,现在她已经活跃在国际演唱会的舞台之上h(5w8(vR)7E%Ml]G。现在,她重返故地,传道受业,助力构建并运营一所音乐学校,这所学校就是由垃圾建成的lmPd#WH!xOG-

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蔓哈妮,拉帕努伊岛音乐学校:我们觉得,好,现在我们有老师也有学生,此外大家都对这个领域感兴趣@)L|Lg2D+&RC|%wx。我们要怎样建设才能教会孩子们如何管理自己的地方,以及如何处理岛上的问题呢?

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杰弗里·布朗:由美国可持续建筑师雷诺兹打造的这所音乐学校是在2014年开始营业的hHD@xyTS_RyDJ4K|HqZJ

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蔓哈妮:墙面里有2500个轮胎,此外还有4万个玻璃瓶以及近4万个易拉罐I-fnq93=-.。这里有太阳电池板,可以供电%aVCg4iCp!VFddtsSo。这里有雨水收集器,可以提供4万升水gKnKr!^t[.6VB|tiPrt

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杰弗里·布朗:今天,蔓哈妮说,这所学校给100多名学生培训了古典音乐和传统音乐方面的知识,这些都是复活节岛上的祖先留下来的NG6~zyq3,zmv-XnHf

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蔓哈妮:这些石像的建造者是我们的祖先,现在的我们要掌控自己的生活4(#n6,_qARY。我们跟祖先有着共同的语言86hssvb_2zI2+yme。今天,我们的文化都是祖先们口口相传留下的Zg7YJkUM8OPE(zAxi0Pq。但由于全球化的推进,我们的文化濒临灭绝,因为我们不知道如何守住自己的文化S~8fvR^G=4i-HKNQ*。我们的文化是巨大的宝藏,所以我们现在必须守护它,趁着它还没有灭绝X5!MJ.EW*YZkR)iR

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杰弗里·布朗:市长埃德蒙兹说,这种骄傲感是关键,可以让我们在快速发展与保护自然环境之间实现平衡ZELBD%.mK=ChOv==Uf1

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佩德罗·埃德蒙兹:关于我们这座岛,有些信息不可不知E(&t.k8(XcY-nI9i。这做到的居民们有着强烈的品牌意识,很重视文化的重要性,也很在意这座岛的脆弱之处[h@__U6l!cbJuR。复活节岛对我来说是个很好的例子,可以完美地向世界彰显怎样最大化的利用资源,以及如何摧毁资源7O@qbv9v9;~D!

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杰弗里·布朗:复活节上的祖先们都在看着我们IxNrA&3FeJO0jM5zvS。这里是杰弗里·布朗从南太平洋上发回的《新闻一小时》报道35E0KkNgr;|1oiiZF=

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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