The retirement age in Russia is 60 for men and 55 for women. Vladimir Putin wants to raise both by five years, and Russians are upset. Over the weekend, there were dozens of protests across the country with activists reporting more than a thousand arrests. NPR's Lucian Kim reports from Moscow.
LUCIAN KIM, BYLINE: Russia's vast wealth is concentrated in Moscow with the best paying jobs and best health care concentrated here. But even in the rich Russian capital, anxiety is growing at a time of tightening economic sanctions and a falling currency. On Sunday, hundreds of Muscovites took to the streets to protest the government's pension plan.
(SOUNDBITE OF PROTEST)
UNIDENTIFIED PROTESTERS: (Chanting in Russian).
KIM: Putin's a thief, they shouted. The government plans to raise the retirement age for women from 55 to 60 and for men from 60 to 65. The plan is proving highly unpopular. In a recent poll, almost 80 percent of respondents said they would vote against the changes — if only they could.
DENIS YEFIMOCHKIN: (Speaking Russian).
KIM: Forty-eight-year-old Denis Yefimochkin says the plan is unfair. It makes exceptions for civil servants, and in some regions, the male life expectancy is lower than the new pension age. Yefimochkin is a sales manager, sitting in one of downtown Moscow's manicured parks with his wife Svetlana and their 2-year-old granddaughter. As working Russians, the Yefimochkins make a monthly contribution to the pension fund, just like Americans pay into Social Security. The difference is they don't have any other retirement plan.
SVETLANA YEFIMOCHKIN: (Speaking Russian).
KIM: Svetlana, who's 49 and runs her own business, says she's angry she'll now have to wait twice as long to get her pension. Many Russians keep working long after reaching the retirement age. They need the extra income to pad their state pensions, which average about $200 a month. For millions of Russians living on the poverty line, those meager checks are a lifeline and the very least they've come to expect from their government. Even one of the government's own polling agencies found only 38 percent of Russians trust President Putin. That's down from highs around 70 percent when he annexed Crimea four years ago.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
PRESIDENT VLADIMIR PUTIN: (Speaking Russian).
KIM: In August in a rare television address to the nation, Putin tried to explain why raising the retirement age was unavoidable.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
PUTIN: (Speaking Russian).
KIM: Putin said the purpose of the change was to preserve the stability of the current pension system into the future. As a concession, he reduced the increase in age for women by three years. Because of a demographic dip after the fall of the Soviet Union, Putin said, soon there won't be enough young workers to support the nation's pensioners. Money from the federal budget is already being used to subsidize the pension fund.
NIKOLAI PETROV: (Speaking Russian).
KIM: Nikolai Petrov, a political analyst, says the government didn't actually have much choice in trimming budget expenditures. The government's mistake, he says, is that the change was presented as a fait accompli. For many people, Putin's explanation last month was too little too late. Out in Moscow's parks, it's hard to find anyone who feels comforted by Putin's words.
MASHA CHABROVA: (Speaking Russian).
KIM: Masha Chabrova, a graduate student, says Russia doesn't need a pension reform. It needs its entire system of government to be changed from the top down. But she isn't too worried about when she'll see her pension. She's just 26, and when she graduates, she plans to move away and live in a different country. Lucian Kim, NPR News, Moscow.
俄罗斯现行退休年龄是男性60岁，女性55岁 。弗拉基米尔·普京希望将男性和女性的退休年龄提高5岁，这令俄罗斯人感到不安 。上周末，俄罗斯各地举行了数十场抗议活动，活动人士说有超过1000人被捕 。NPR新闻的卢西恩·金将从莫斯科带来报道 。
卢西恩·金连线：俄罗斯的大部分财富集中在莫斯科，收入最高的工作岗位以及最好的医疗保障均集中在莫斯科 。但是即使是在最富有的俄罗斯首都莫斯科，在遭遇日益加紧的经济制裁措施和货币贬值时，焦虑也在不断加深 。上周日，数百名莫斯科人走上街头，抗议政府的延迟退休方案 。
金：他们在高喊：普京是小偷 。俄罗斯政府计划将女性退休年龄从55岁提高到60岁，将男性退休年龄从60岁提高到65岁 。事实证明这项计划是极不受欢迎的计划 。最近进行的民调显示，近80%的受访者表示，如果可以，他们会投票反对这一变化 。
金：48岁的丹尼斯·叶菲莫克钦表示，这项计划不公平 。公务员不适用于这一计划，在一些地区，男性的预期寿命甚至低于更改后的退休年龄 。叶菲莫克钦是一名销售经理，他和妻子斯维特拉娜及2岁的孙女坐在莫斯科市中心一个精心打理的公园中 。和所有莫斯科工薪族一样，叶菲莫克钦每个月都要缴纳养老基金，这和美国人缴纳社会保险类似 。不同点在于他们没有其他的退休计划 。
金：斯维特拉娜今年49岁，经营自已的公司，她说她很生气，因为她领取养老金的时间延长了两倍 。许多俄罗斯人在达到退休年龄之后还会继续工作很长时间 。他们需要额外的收入来缴纳国家养老基金，大约每个月要缴纳200美元左右 。对生活在贫困线以下的数百万名俄罗斯人来说，这笔微薄的养老金是他们的救命稻草，是他们对政府最起码的期望 。现在，即使是政府民调机构提供的数据，也只有38%的俄罗斯人还相信普京总统 。而四年前他入侵克里米亚时支持率一度达到约70%的高点 。
金：普京表示，这一更改的目的是保持现行养老金体系在未来的稳定 。普京做出让步，将女性退休年龄的延长时间减少了3年 。普京说，由于苏联解体后人口持续下降，不久之后俄罗斯就将没有足够的年轻劳动人口来支持退休者 。联邦预算的资金已经被用来补贴养老基金 。
金：政治分析家尼科莱·彼得罗夫表示，政府在缩减预算支出方面确实没有太多选择 。他说，政府的错误在于将这一更改作为既定事实 。对许多人来说，普京在上个月做出的解释为时已晚，而且没有多少作用 。在莫斯科公园，很难找到被普京的解释安慰到的人 。
金：玛莎·哈布罗娃是名研究生，她说俄罗斯不需要进行养老金改革 。俄罗斯需要的是整个政府体系自上而下的改革 。但是她并不担心何时才能领到养老金 。她现在刚刚26岁，她计划毕业后搬去其他国家生活 。NPR新闻，卢西恩·金莫斯科报道 。
1. plan to do sth. 计划；筹划；谋划；
They plan to challenge the constitutionality of the law.
2. because of 因为；由于；
There is no limit to what can be achieved here be cause of the fantastic support we command.
3. from the top down 从上到下；
Organizational change on this scale requires significant investment and commitment from the top down.
4. move away 搬家；迁移他处；
He moved away and broke off relations with the family.