VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):脱水的五大征兆要注意
日期:2018-08-27 10:56

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Signs You May Be Dehydrated

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From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

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Drinking enough water is important to our health. If we want to operate at our highest level and feel great both mentally and physically, we need to stay hydrated throughout the day.

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But often ... we don't.

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People may go through their days dehydrated and not even know it.

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Dehydration can make you sick. Extreme dehydration can lead to death.

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However, many side effects of dehydration are not life-threatening. But they can still affect your health. In fact, you may be suffering from some of these side effects without knowing that dehydration is the cause.

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First: What is dehydration?

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Dehydration happens when you use or lose more fluid than you take in. Your body doesn't have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions.

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On the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science School website, experts explain how much of our bodies are made of water.

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Jeffrey Utz is a doctor of neuroscience and children's medicine at Allegheny University in Pennsylvania. He writes that different bodies have different amounts of water in them. And that amount changes throughout our lives.

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Babies have the highest percentage of water in their bodies. When we are born our bodies are about 78 percent water. By the time we turn one year old, that amount drops to about 65 percent.

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Adult men are about 60 percent water, while adult women are about 55 percent.

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Your body type matters, too.

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The amount of muscle or fat you have affects the percentage of water in your body. People with more fatty tissue have less water than people with less fatty tissue.

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Now, let's talk about how dehydration affects the body. Experts on the website Health.com explain the signs of dehydration.

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Here are the top five:

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You have bad breath and bad skin

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Bad breath is a sign that the mouth does not have enough saliva. This increases bacteria and results in bad breath.

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And for healthy skin, it is important to drink a lot of water. Skin doctors warn that skin creams only do so much. The best way to hydrate your skin is from the inside out.

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You feel tired

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If you feel tired during the day, your body may be telling you to drink some water. One doctor on Health.com explains that, when you are dehydrated, your blood pressure drops, your heart rate increases and blood flow to the brain slows. These can all make you feel tired. This doctor adds that when your muscles don't get enough water, physical work can be more difficult and tiring.

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Your workout could be affected.

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Our bodies often do not know the difference between hunger and thirst. One of the experts on Health.com advises high-level athletes on kinds of foods to eat. That expert is Amy Goodson. She explains that when you exercise while dehydrated, your body uses stored carbohydrates faster than if you were fully hydrated. She adds that once you finish exercising, your body will want those carbohydrates back. This, she warns, may lead to overeating.

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Your brain works poorly

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When our bodies do not get enough water, blood flow to the brain slows. This can cause several problems. You may get in a bad mood. Every little thing gets on your nerves, or angers you. You may have a difficult time focusing. You may not be able to think clearly about a problem. Dehydration can also cause headaches.

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You suffer from muscle cramps

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When your body does not get enough water, it sends out an emergency signal to protect the most important organs. So, the body sends the fluids in the body away from non-important parts of the body like the muscles. This can lead to painful muscle cramps.

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Okay. So, how much water do you need?

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The amount of water you need to stay hydrated depends on many conditions.

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On average, an adult male needs about 3 liters of water every day. An adult female needs to get about 2.2 liters of water every day. Keep in mind, this doesn't have to come only from drinking. We also get water from the foods we eat, especially from fruits and some vegetables.

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However, some people need to drink more than others.

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Those who exercise every day should drink more water. Anyone who drinks a lot caffeine or alcohol in a day should drink extra water, as well.

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If you are recovering from a sickness, you should drink more water than usual. And if you work outside or in hot conditions, make sure you drink enough water.

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And that's the Health & Lifestyle Report.

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I'm Anna Matteo ...

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and I'm Bryan Lynn.

重点解析

1.go through 参加;通过

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You must go through customs in order to pass across the border.

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你要过境, 就必须在海关办理手续iwWt_L[%V]L

2.make sure 确信

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Make sure you are strapped in very well, or else you will fall out.

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一定要系好安全带,否则会摔出去[KBjocrQH));f0(

3.On average 平均而言

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American adults get only about 700 mg of calcium in their diet each day, on average.

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美国成年人每天从饮食中摄入钙质的平均水平只有大约700毫克JGxg@J%v4bI3^|U#V7(

4.Bad breath 口臭

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If brushing and mouthwash don't improve bad breath, an Israeli scientist may have the solution -- laser treatment.

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如果刷牙和漱口都不能解决口臭的问题,也许激光可以帮忙_WB~&HCV(t

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5.Your body doesn't have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions.

carry out 实施;进行

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You must carry out my orders.

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你必须执行我的命令j[(clG)j^S13Anio8b4

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Can you stipulate they would carry out the treaty?

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你能保证他们会执行该条约吗?

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6.Skin doctors warn that skin creams only do so much. The best way to hydrate your skin is from the inside out.

from the inside out 由内而外的

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I am changed from the inside out.

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我从内到外被改变了Dj;29)(zc[|H89,p1JmL

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Like tea, a hot soup can warm you from the inside out.

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和茶一样,热汤也能让你从里到外暖洋洋zy]VwaCAb&)B

参考译文

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脱水的五大征兆要注意

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这里是VOA慢速英语健康生活报道5#KaPYPO7WuDk=zdd#)S

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饮用足够的水对我们的健康来说十分重要JYKMQ~r)S71S.)!Nn。如果想要头脑和身体保持最佳状态并且感到舒适的话,我们需要全天保持充足的水份LzH&.86#!En[u3v~y

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可我们经常做不到TV.Mm!o3dD

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有些人可能长期处于脱水状态而不自知P[kAiI4i;KS,~*9d

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脱水会导致生病MoUI(V4zIh4[rSaGgw3。严重脱水还会导致死亡Zqysj)H;SgsD

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然而,脱水的许多副作用不会危及生命8nK(;5_jwJH_By。但是,它们仍会影响你的健康[KrWE!FZ%HpU。事实上,你可能会遭受某些副作用的折磨,却并不知道脱水是“元凶”M)r!jmfZHoJ3K

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首先:什么是脱水?

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脱水的五大征兆.jpg

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当消耗或流失的水分超出所吸收的水分时,身体会出现脱水症状!SVmHzAFHMq5W。人体没有足够的水分或其它液体来维持身体的正常机能3w;-Fs&Z5[,3cQ+Dm==

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在美国地质调查局水科学教育网上,专家们解释了人体水分构成的情况;aDl4&2iOm^26,A%-4z

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杰弗里·乌茨(Jeffrey Utz)是宾夕法尼亚阿勒格尼学院的神经科学及儿童医学博士eE6MyRN6ql-6。他写到:不同的身体,其含水量也不同63VO@6,06SNMAk%Q(。而且含水量一生都在发生变化]GO9YRHie^gcs,(e

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婴儿体内的水分比例最高V|7[5=_.*q。我们出生时,体内的水分含量约78%egx+Gk|me1。一岁时,体内水分含量下降到65%z8c(Ha^]|ob

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成年男性的体内水分含量约60%,而成年女性的体内水分含量约55%1qCagytm5H|

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体型也很重要[T*tm2u4_2;FIk=iAP3

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肌肉和脂肪含量会影响体内水分的比例racAj5-c1+1g。与脂肪组织较少的人相比,脂肪组织较多的人,其体内水分含量较低(6&t@Atv4jJ

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现在,我们来谈谈脱水对身体的影响|*MX=~n6GTx!。健康网站的专家列举出脱水的迹象Q|e@m[eC+HpwV|NeeL1_

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五大脱水征兆:

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口臭,皮肤状态不好s-a1NYayfI.(^r1ycZ&

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口臭意味着口腔内没有足够的唾液Zyfwprsmp4b|Hj+XIz。这会引起细菌繁殖,进而导致口臭FNuci6&^-(Gd9.H_JLvu

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想要拥有健康的皮肤,多喝水是很重要的O_c8^^1cSZH)0。皮肤科医生警告称,护肤霜的作用有限,给皮肤补水的最佳办法“内外兼修”dUbI+4GdM]

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感觉疲惫

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如果白天感觉疲倦,身体可能在提醒你该喝水了2T.JO;zKX@)L+|@T%Oi。健康网站的一位医生解释称:处于脱水状态时,血压会下降,心率会增加,血液流经大脑的速度放缓,这些变化都会让你感到疲劳CVAU^t!oBalc~7pW[!_。该医生补充说:当肌肉缺乏足够的水分时,从事体力劳动会更加困难,也更容易疲惫crV!!lzyoE5PF

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锻炼效果也会受影响.BPP=3bXR#h4]

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人体往往无法区分饥饿和口渴8rxmuD#8Upe。健康的一位专家建议,高水平运动员要吃种类丰富的食物w^O)6N8wwNbe4j!_r=]R。艾米·古德森(Amy Goodson)专家解释称:当你在脱水状态下运动时,身体消耗体内碳水化合物的速度比在水分充足时锻炼时要消耗得更快7^+0oa%|wuv。她补充说:一旦做完运动,身体会想补充那些被消耗的碳水化合物T;T9)%M9MY_;wPWNKkP。她警告称,这可能会导致暴饮暴食vt_PpA+|XQ8

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大脑反应迟钝

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当人体没有摄入足够水分时,流向大脑的血液会变缓H=#OADmnn).#)FQ55Uf。这可能引发很多问题DE8Uxp44y-JpkdSNJW)。你可能会心情不好;你会因为一件小事心烦或暴怒;你可能很难集中注意力;你可能无法清楚地思考问题;脱水还会引起头痛@D]zh=jj2W6HI,yN[4AQ

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肌肉抽筋症状

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当身体没有摄取足够的水分,它会发出紧急信号来保护最重要的器官zyBa1r9nx_@OnX@。因此,人体会将体液从不重要的部位(如肌肉)输送过去%kkyNQ9R)4jDY6e^QCe。这会导致疼痛性肌肉痉挛RGhVYa@U@j&piHVUz,V

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那么人体需要摄入多少水分呢?

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保持体内水分所需的饮水量取决于多个条件Ck|onFcooT&I5P2Vev

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平均而言,成年男性每天需饮用3升水rj(IWLaYM4@z#uET[。成年女性每天需饮用2.2升水24OBbtS|TSaCV。切记,补水不仅指喝水mXS=pLh5t5ACFDu。我们还可以从食物中摄取水分,尤其是水果和某些蔬菜cxExABbhd[tqXOl9Q6v

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不过,有些人需要比他人饮用更多的水eed(M]=.N-Q

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每天锻炼的人应该多喝水AQE%o_8rr04gc-。每天摄入大量咖啡因或酒精的人也应该多喝水S.]x7rOB[qY.hU

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如果你大病初愈也应该比平时多喝水i%H8j&STLm_Z。如果你在室外或者炎热环境下工作,务必要喝足够的水F|2P|mO@1TBZy|K]u

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以上为健康生活报道的全部内容.fgHJNa[|r41

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安娜·马特奥为您播报5HMWLl&vh22D)lsaT

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布莱恩·林恩为您播报Yq~73LasigkieAtJzf

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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