VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):竞争还是合作?美俄如何控制核武器
日期:2018-07-31 14:15

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Report Urges US, Russian Cooperation on Nuclear Arms Control

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The United States and Russia urgently need to restart cooperation to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, a new report says.

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The International Institute for Strategic Studies, or IISS, based in London released the report. It is called "Once and Future Partners: The United States, Russia and Nuclear Non-Proliferation."

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The study uses formerly secret documents to show incidents in which the U.S. and Western countries cooperated with Russia to limit the spread of nuclear weapons in the past.

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Cold War competitors worked together to limit nuclear arms

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One important example of cooperation during the period known as the Cold War took place in August of 1977.

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Soviet spy satellites showed preparations for a nuclear weapons test at a military base in South Africa. At the time, South Africa was ruled by a system of racial separation known as apartheid. The Soviets consulted with the U.S. before publicly announcing their findings.

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Nicholas Redman is with the IISS. He spoke about relations between the U.S. and Soviet Union. He said the incident shows that, even during the tense period of the Cold War, the two sides could work together.

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Redman said, "The Soviets took the risk of sharing this intelligence with the United States."

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South Africa denied it planned to carry out a nuclear weapons test. However, U.S. intelligence soon confirmed the presence of the test site. It helped pressure South Africa to cancel its plans.

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Another example was the cooperation between U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.

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Redman says that personal relationship were important, but other supports needed to be in place to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.

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"The fact that there were arms control specialists and scientific specialists in both governments, the fact that they met regularly...this was actually vital in building the entire regime," he said.

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The development of a plan for limiting the spread of nuclear weapons took about 10 years of talks in Geneva during the 1960s. The result was the 1970 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It remains important to nuclear arms control. But the NPT is being questioned more than at any time in its past.

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Redman noted: "So there's a need for an investment to rebuild these habits of cooperation because the threats haven't actually gone away. There are still a lot of nuclear weapons that aren't as secure as we would like them to be. There are even more nuclear materials..."

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A new arms race?

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Some experts are concerned that a new nuclear arms race is developing. They point to Russia developing so called tactical atomic weapons and American efforts to modernize nuclear weapons.

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The United Nations has tried to support nuclear arms control with the 2017 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. However, no nuclear powers have been willing to sign the treaty.

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Redman said, "Unless the United States and Russia cooperate, the problem is they could very quickly lose the initiative they have held up ‘till now."

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I'm Mario Ritter.

重点解析

1.held up 举起

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The process of judicial selection was held up to ridicule.

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司法选举的过程成为了笑柄^6NG&wJ=YsnrBoOdJ

2.Nuclear Weapons 核武器

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He claims that several countries have developed nuclear weapons secretly.

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他声称有几个国家已经秘密研制出了核武器-9]wugut[uImM

3.arms race 军备竞赛

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The arms race between the countries badly affects people's living standards.

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各国间的军备竞赛严重影响了人们的生活水准.1lRNlK@d2X!(56|)FI;

4.gone away 消失

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He has gone away on business so I didn't see him.

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他有事外出,我没见到他4rp&NTGFpm!4P221

5.Cold War competitors worked together to limit nuclear arms

worked together to 合作...

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We worked together to combine our knowledge.

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我们共同合作,将我们的知识汇集在一起!IF5ZpweaV9

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Sixteen countries from all around the world worked together to plan and construct a permanent space station.

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世界上16个国家共同努力,设计并建造了一个永久性空间站^2juLNB6PU=o.[7~QNwk

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6.South Africa denied it planned to carry out a nuclear weapons test.

carry out 实施

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I myself will firmly carry out this plan.

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The operator has to be able to carry out routine maintenance of the machine.

操作员必须能对机器进行日常维护71n_rP[Jwy~)

参考译文

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竞争还是合作?美俄如何控制核武器

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一份新报告称,美国和俄罗斯迫切需要重启合作,防止核武器扩散U_Ivc[hxLESd2Y9

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这份报告是由总部位于伦敦的国际战略研究所发布的.YuaQ9hj9m。报告名为《过去和未来的伙伴:美、俄以及核不扩散》TdorKA*YQdI

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该研究采用了以前的机密文件显示美国等西方国家与俄罗斯过去合作限制核武器扩散的事件5#MwmL;9Fj%

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冷战竞争对手共同努力限制核武器

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冷战时期合作的一项重要案例发生在1977年8月&)uCxtD)[kxBJFt

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美俄如何控制核武器.jpg

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苏联间谍卫星显示,南非一处军事基地在进行核武器试验的准备工作f2GFhlT*c8HQ+|Iq.LW。当时的南非处于种族隔离制度的统治中|t&;FITUvC。在公布他们的发现之前,苏联与美国进行了磋商]w(S5!DJ+rgU6E~r3Jc

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尼古拉斯·莱德曼(Nicholas Redman)在国际战略研究所任职bP9K.0B9nN;。他谈及美国和苏联的关系6@tftr|[@G9eG7pB;。他说,这一事件表明,即使再冷战的紧张时期,双方也可通力合作J0U^Q&!G=0jvU9]4

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莱德曼表示:”苏联人承担着与美国共享情报的风险ZZalm-IE9[hoa%CkB。“

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而南非否认计划进行核武器试验N4SxNEGuMpie.T。然而,不久,美国情报部门证实了该试验场的存在t2;i8xP,(6zyFD。这有助于迫使南非取消核计划x^Uw2nD9IlYL

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还有一个是美国总统卡特(Jimmy Carter)与苏联领导人勃列日涅夫(Leonid Brezhnev)的合作2SEF7LUapnm

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莱德曼表示,虽然个人关系十分重要,但是需要提供其它支持来防止核武器扩散-CBuml3QhB&~9up#l;

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他说:”现实是,两国政府都有军备控制专家和科学专家,他们会定期会面,这对整个体系建设至关重要#!d,2N.7q[DZ。“

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20世纪60年代,限制核武器扩散计划在日内瓦经历了约10年的谈判r+d[OGWfS-GQ@TfsH。最终诞生了1970年的《不扩散核武器条约》058&Bdva#2y。这份条约依然对控制核武器至关重要)Q0Js!qc[H3#RtL。但是《不扩散核武器条约》正遭受前所未有的质疑rP;Q2U]a@NTFLq@(2R8g

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莱德曼指出:”因此,需要投资来重建这些合作模式,因为核武器威胁其实并未消失~CfSI-wAB.*]CpU#wxR。还有很多核武器并没有我们想象中那么安全zEmbnbB9q(nKF。甚至还出现了更多核材料......“

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新一轮军备竞赛?

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一些专家担心,新一轮核军备竞赛正在蠢蠢欲动&VE%XcB^oIa23r。他们指出,俄罗斯正在发展所谓的“战术核武器”,而美国也尝试让核武器现代化0f90Sml*_gHM!=uG~A

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联合国试图通过2017年的《禁止核武器条约》支持核军备控制6*A7XcnAnvaL。然而,没有核大国愿意签署这一条约@TCJZ,Y&^dn^

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莱德曼表示:”除非美国和俄罗斯合作,否则,问题将是他们很快会失去其迄今为止坚持的主动权=glAG)t3)G。“

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马里奥·里特为您播报r.t,A7AkCgA2cIy2

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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