Trump-Putin Meeting: Helsinki’s Cold War History
U.S. President Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin will hold their first summit on July 16 in Helsinki, Finland.
The meeting comes at a time of uneasy relations between their countries.
In recent years, the two sides have disagreed about a number of issues. They include Russia's involvement in the Ukraine conflict and its support of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. In addition, United States officials have accused Russia of attempting to influence the 2016 U.S. elections.
Before Trump arrives in Finland, he will attend a NATO meeting in Belgium, and make stops in Britain and Scotland. Speaking to reporters before he left for Europe, the president predicted his talks with Putin may be the "easiest" during his trip.
While Trump said he "can't say right now" whether Putin is a friend or enemy, he did call the Russian president a "competitor."
Helsinki has a rich history of high-level negotiations between the leaders of the nuclear powers. It will be the fourth time the top leaders from the two sides will meet there. Finland has historically been used as neutral territory since Russia was part of the Soviet Union. It was chosen as a place for the two sides to hold high-level talks on major issues.
Finland fought Soviet forces during World War II and signed a cooperation deal with the Soviet government in 1948. Before the Soviet Union collapsed, Finland permitted Soviet influence on its national and international policies, while officially keeping its independence.
The Finnish government sought to keep an even balance between the Soviet Union and the United States. Both powers used Finland as a base for intelligence-gathering operations.
Finland often offered Helsinki as a meeting place for negotiations between the Soviet Union and Western nations. In an effort to be seen as truly neutral, Finland never joined NATO or the Warsaw Pact, the defense treaty signed by the Soviet Union and its allies.
Mikko Majander is a Finnish historian. He told Radio Free Europe that Finland sought an "active policy" of neutrality. "Finland was between the blocs, East and West," he said. "And by offering good services to international diplomacy, kind of strengthened its position."
Helsinki's most famous security summit came in 1975, with U.S. President Gerald Ford and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. The meeting resulted in the signing of an agreement known as the Helsinki Accords. These were a set of guidelines - including territorial issues and human rights – on ties between the United States, the Soviet Union and 33 European countries.
Brezhnev and Ford also held arms-control talks at their Helsinki summit. Then U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger described those talks as "very useful."
Jussi Hanhimaki is a Finnish historian with the Graduate Institute of Geneva. He said the 1975 summit represented a "major goal of Finnish diplomacy in the early 1970s."
The next meeting of U.S. and Soviet leaders in Helsinki took place in September 1990. That is when U.S. President George Bush met with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Their talks mainly dealt with a major international event at the time, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
Two years earlier, then U.S. President Ronald Reagan, stopped in Helsinki on his way to Moscow for a summit with Gorbachev. During his three-day visit to Finland, he declared in a speech there was "no true international security without respect for human rights."
The most recent summit in Helsinki was held in 1997. It involved U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin. They discussed several major issues, including Russia's strong opposition to NATO expansion into nations once belonging to the Soviet Union.
Finland joined the European Union following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but has still not joined NATO. It is now part of the alliance's Partnership for Peace program, which permits Finnish troops to take part in NATO peacekeeping operations.
I'm Bryan Lynn.
1.at a time of 在...的时候
Customers are drawing in their horns at a time of high interest rates.
2.belong to 属于
Earls, princes, and kings belong to the nobility.
3.major issues 重大问题
Peace and development are two major issues in the world today.
4.international security 国际安全
China's armed forces are the initiator and facilitator of and participant in international security cooperation.
5.In an effort to be seen as truly neutral, Finland never joined NATO or the Warsaw Pact, the defense treaty signed by the Soviet Union and its allies.
In an effort to 为了...
Mass burials are now under way in an effort to ward off an outbreak of cholera.
He finally left home in an effort to counter the tyranny of arranged marriage in the old society.
6.It is now part of the alliance's Partnership for Peace program, which permits Finnish troops to take part in NATO peacekeeping operations.
take part in 参加
Cadres have gone down to different grass-roots units to take part in manual labour.
They returned to take part in the season's opening game.
近年来，双方在一些问题上存在分歧，其中包括俄罗斯卷入乌克兰冲突及其对叙利亚总统阿萨德（Bashar al-Assad）的支持。此外，美国官员指责俄罗斯企图影响2016年的美国大选 。
赫尔辛基曾多次举办过核大国领导人之间的高层谈判。这将是美俄最高领导人第四次在此举行会晤 。自俄罗斯成为苏联一部分以来，芬兰一直被作为中立领土 。双方选择在此就重大问题举办高层会谈 。
芬兰经常把赫尔辛基作为苏联与西方国家谈判的会晤场所。为了实现真正的中立，芬兰从未加入北约（NATO）或《华沙条约》（Warsaw Pact），后者是苏联及其盟国签署的防御条约 。
米科（Mikko Majander）是芬兰历史学家。他告诉自由欧洲电台，芬兰寻求一种“积极的中立政策” 。他说：“芬兰身处东、西两大阵营之间，通过向国际外交提供良好的服务巩固其地位 。”
尤西（Jussi Hanhimaki）是日内瓦研究生院的芬兰历史学家。他说，1975年的峰会是“20世纪70年代早期芬兰外交的主要目标” 。
1990年9月，美苏两国领导人在赫尔辛基举办了第二次峰会。时任的美国总统老布什会见了苏联领导人戈尔巴乔夫 。会谈主要讨论了当时的重大国际事件——伊拉克入侵科威特 。
最近一次在赫尔辛基举办首脑峰会是在1997年。这次会议包括美国总统克林顿以及俄罗斯总统叶利钦 。他们讨论了几项重大问题，包括俄罗斯强烈反对北约向苏联曾经的所属国扩张 。