Today, the United States of America celebrates its birthday. It is a commemoration of the day in 1776 when representatives of the 13 British colonies signed the Declaration of Independence, a separation from Great Britain.
There were many complex reasons for this split—the Declaration's principal author, Thomas Jefferson called them a long train of abuses and usurpations. But it all boiled down to a few salient points. Much of it had to do with what the colonists perceived as abuses by the British Government that went back many years.
For example, the colonists greatly resented British laws that forbade any movement or settlement West of the Allegheny mountains, and the imposition of taxes that were meant to replenish the British treasury depleted by years of fighting. And most of all, they were angry that they had no say in the hundreds of laws that were passed by the government in distant London. Indeed, in the run-up to the Revolutionary War, the oft-repeated phrase “Taxation without representation is tyranny” well summarized the colonists' grievances.
In writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson proposed that by the authority of the people, an independent United States would become a nation on an equal footing with European nations that governed themselves, formed alliances with foreign nations and engaged freely in commerce.
And then Jefferson went a step further and declared that all men are created equal, and as such, enjoyed a number of unalienable rights, including life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Thomas Jefferson stated that it is the job of a government to ensure these rights, and therefore it is important that the government derives its powers from the consent of the governed. This passage is a response to the colonists' anger over taxation without representation, and a direct challenge to the British government.
Today we celebrate the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the principles it defines. The Day marks the beginning of the Revolutionary War, a seven year conflict that ended with the birth of the United States of America, and the promise of a new era of freedom.
In the words of Thomas Jefferson, The equal rights of man, and the happiness of every individual, are now acknowledged to be the only legitimate objects of government.
1. But it all boiled down to a few salient points.
boil down to 归结为，归根结底
What they want boils down to just one thing. It is land.
2. In writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson proposed that by the authority of the people,
by the authority of 得到……的许可，以……的权力
After all, its assertion by the authority of respectable teachers is sufficient evidence to begin with.
这次脱离有很多复杂的原因——《独立宣言》的主要撰写人托马斯 杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)将其称之为不堪忍受的虐待和掠夺 。但所有这些还可以归结为几点 。很大一部分原因是因为多年来，英国政府对殖民地居民进行的虐待 。
比如，殖民地居民极为憎恨英国禁止在阿利根尼山脉西部移动及定居的法律，也极为憎恨英国征收赋税，只为填平英国数年来因战乱造成的国库亏空 。他们最为气愤的是自己没有话语权，无法影响远在天边的英国政府所通过的上百项法律 。确实如此，在美国独立战争之前，人们经常说一句话“无代表的税捐就是暴政”，这句话极好地总结了殖民地居民的痛苦 。
在撰写《独立宣言》期间，托马斯 杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)提出，美国独立是符合人民意愿的，这样的国家可以与自治的欧洲诸国比肩，可以与外国形成联盟，也可以自由参与贸易 。
杰斐逊进一步表示，人人生而平等，享有不可剥夺的诸多权利，如生命权、自由权、追求幸福的权利 。杰斐逊表示，政府的任务是确保人民享有这些权利，因此很重要的一点是：政府不能不经人民许可就剥夺人民的权利 。杰斐逊传达的信息回应了殖民地居民对无代表税捐的愤怒，也直接挑战了英国政府的权威 。
今天，我们庆祝《独立宣言》的签署，庆祝《独立宣言》所彰显的原则 。今天象征着独立战争的开始，这场长达7年的战役以美国的诞生而结束，预示着自由新时代的到来 。