We're going to spend much of the program today getting a range of reaction to last night's military strikes in Syria and trying to get a sense of what comes next. We'll start at the Pentagon, where officials are describing the attacks as precise, overwhelming and effective. The targets of American missiles were three chemical weapons facilities. NPR's Pentagon correspondent Tom Bowman is with us now.
Tom, thanks so much for joining us.
TOM BOWMAN, BYLINE: Glad to be here.
MARTIN: Now first, the Pentagon said it has no indication the attack caused civilian casualties, but it didn't rule out that Syria's anti-aircraft defenses may have harmed people on the ground. Here's Marine Lieutenant General Frank McKenzie.
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FRANK MCKENZIE: The Syrians shot 40 large missiles into the air last night. Those missiles came down somewhere, and so we should just recognize that's a part of this equation, too.
MARTIN: So, Tom, let me ask you about those 40 Syrian missiles. Did they or any other Syrian defenses prevent any part of this attack?
BOWMAN: No. Pentagon officials say no. And also, they say the U.S. — after — they said these Syrian missiles were launched after all of the missiles were fired by the U.S., France and Britain. A hundred and five missiles were fired by the three countries from aircrafts and warships. And, as you say, the targets were a research center in Damascus, chemical weapons storage facility and also a command center nearby. All were destroyed, according to the Pentagon. But he — the general raises a good point. Did any of these missiles fired by Syria actually land and maybe hurt some — or killed some civilians? We don't know.
MARTIN: I don't know — is that the whole of Syria's chemical weapons program? Why those three targets?
BOWMAN: Well, it's not the entire program. The Pentagon officials say the attacks significantly degraded — struck at the heart of Syria's chemical weapons capacity. But you're right. You know, some parts of the program remain. And officials say other targets could have been hit, but there was a concern about civilian casualties, so they decided not to. Now, this attack, we're told, was a one-time strike, but they say if Syria uses chemical weapons again, more attacks will come.
MARTIN: What about Syria's ally Russia, which has its own forces in the country?
BOWMAN: Well, Russia says Syria knocked down about three quarters of the cruise missiles. And again, the U.S. said that was not the case. Russia, Syria and Iran all decried what they called aggression by the U.S., said that it violated international law.
But Russia — here's what's interesting, Michel — Russia did get a sense from the U.S. that something was happening. That's because the two countries have what's called a deconfliction phone line to prevent accidents or mishaps with their military aircraft flying around the country. The U.S. told the Russians they would be operating in a certain airspace, but that was it — nothing about targets.
MARTIN: And finally, Tom, before we let you go, the president says this attack is a response to a chemical weapons attack last week. Both Syria and Russia deny that this happened. Can you tell us any more about what evidence the U.S. is relying on to justify the strike?
BOWMAN: Well, last night, Defense Secretary Mattis — I asked him about the evidence, and he really wouldn't say anything. And today, there was a background briefing at the White House, and they said the evidence includes photos on social media and eyewitness accounts.
Now, if the U.S. has any hard evidence like blood, tissue, soil samples, it isn't saying. And officials say it appears the chemical was chlorine used by Syria. They said there's strong evidence of that. But they're still not sure if the more lethal nerve agent sarin was used. And today, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons — their inspectors are investigating the site of the alleged attack. But here's the thing — the OPCW can only confirm a certain chemical was used. They cannot assign blame.
MARTIN: That was NPR Pentagon correspondent Tom Bowman. Tom, thank you.
BOWMAN: You're welcome.
我们今天节目的大部分时间都将关注外界对昨晚军事打击叙利亚的反应，并试图了解接下来会发生什么 。首先，五角大楼官员称这次打击精准、势不可挡且有效 。美国导弹的袭击目标是叙利亚三个化学武器设施 。我们请到了NPR新闻驻五角大楼记者汤姆·鲍曼 。
马丁：第一个问题，五角大楼说没有迹象表明这次袭击造成平民伤亡，不过并未排除叙利亚的反导系统造成人员伤亡的可能性 。以下是美国海军陆战队中将弗兰克·麦肯齐所说 。
弗兰克·麦肯齐：昨晚叙利亚向空中发射了40枚大型导弹 。这些导弹落在了某处，我们应该承认那也是这个等式的部分内容 。
鲍曼：没有 。五角大楼官员的回答是没有 。另外，他们还指出，这些叙利亚导弹是在美国、法国和英国联合发射了所有导弹之后才发射的 。三国用战机和军舰共发射了105枚导弹 。如你所说，这次空袭的打击目标包括大马士革的一家研究中心、化学武器储存设施以及附近的一座指挥中心 。据五角大楼表示，三个目标全部被摧残 。但是中将提到了一个很好的观点 。叙利亚发射的导弹在落地后是否造成了平民受伤或是平民死亡？这个我们不得而知 。
鲍曼：并不是全部项目 。五角大楼官员表示，此次袭击极大地削弱并打击了叙利亚化武能力的核心 。不过你说得没错 。叙利亚的化武项目依然存在 。官员表示，本来可以打击其他目标，不过因为担心造成平民伤亡，因此他们决定不实施打击 。我们听说，这次的袭击是“一次性打击”，不过官员称，如果叙利亚再次使用化学武器，他们会发动更多袭击 。
鲍曼：俄罗斯表示，叙利亚击落了约四分之三的巡航导弹 。不过美国称那不是事实 。俄罗斯、叙利亚和伊朗对他们称之为的“美国侵略行为”进行了公开谴责，并称这一行为违反国际法 。
米歇尔，值得注意的是，俄罗斯的确从美国那里感觉到有事情会发生 。这是因为两国之间有“消除冲突的电话线”，该电话线旨在防止两国军用飞机在飞行时发生事故或意外 。美国告知俄罗斯，他们可能会在特定空域采取行动，但是并没有提到打击目标一事 。
马丁：汤姆，最后一个问题，总统说这次袭击是对上周发生的化学武器袭击的回应 。而叙利亚和俄罗斯均否认发生了化武袭击 。你能介绍一下美国是依靠什么证据来证明这次袭击的正当性的吗？
鲍曼：昨晚，我问了美国国防部长马蒂斯有关证据的问题，他不太愿意回答 。今天，一场背景情况介绍会在白宫举行，他们说证据包括社交媒体上的图片和目击者的证词 。
美国并没有说明是否掌握了血液、组织、土壤样本等铁证 。官员表示，显然叙利亚使用的化学物质是氯气 。他们说有强有力的证据能证明这点 。但是他们仍不能确定更为致命的神经毒剂是否被使用 。今天，禁止化学武器组织（简称为OPCW）的调查人员对疑似化武袭击的发生地展开了调查 。不过问题是，禁止化学武器组织只能证实某种化学物质被使用 。但是他们不能进行问责 。
马丁：以上是NPR新闻驻五角大楼记者汤姆·鲍曼带来的报道 。汤姆，谢谢你 。
1. a range of （同类事物的）一系列，一连串；
例句：A wide range of colours and patterns are available.
2. rule out 排除；不予考虑；
例句：But this does not rule out unofficial discussions.
3. knock down 推倒，拆掉，拆毁；
例句：The anti - aircraft battery knocked down eleven enemy planes in a single day.
4. rely on 依赖；依靠；
例句：It would be rash to rely on such evidence.