This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Jason G. Goldman.
Got a minute?
(alert hoo recording)
That means danger—to a chimpanzee. Chimps use this call, known as an "alert hoo," to warn each other about a potential threat, like a dangerous snake on the forest floor. And researchers have now used recordings of that call to get inside the chimpanzee mind.
"There is more studies showing that various animals seem to be able to take another's perspective into account to a certain extent. They seem to be able to understand what another one sees or doesn't see for example."
Catherine Crockford, a primatologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany.
Crockford and her team traveled to Uganda's Budongo Forest to study the ability of chimps to modify their calls based upon the knowledge of others.
They hid a fake snake on the ground and then used a loudspeaker to broadcast chimp calls. In some cases, the speaker played that alarm call, the "alert hoo,"
(alert hoo recording)
suggesting to listeners that a nearby chimp was aware of the snake.
But in other cases, the speaker played a different kind of call called a rest hoo,
(rest hoo recording)
This non-alarm told listeners that the chimp they were hearing was not aware of any snake danger.
And when the chimps who had heard the rest hoo came across the fake snake, they gave ample warnings, using both their alarm calls and body language. But when chimps heard the alarm call before encountering the fake snake, they produced fewer alert hoos—apparently satisfied that their comrades were aware of the threat. The study is in the journal Science Advances.
"So we were able to tease those things apart and show that the main motivation for their calling didn't really fit with their own emotional state or their own habituation level to the snake, so it really seemed that they were taking into account the others' perspective."
Seems that, like humans, chimps and perhaps other primates are able to adjust their communications based on what they think their intended recipients think. Which is clearly a useful ability for intelligent beings that have complex social lives.
Thanks for the minute for Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Jason G. Goldman.
对黑猩猩来说，这种声音意味着“危险” 。黑猩猩用这种“警戒呼呼声”互相提醒，留意潜在的危险，比如森林地面上有危险的蛇 。现在研究人员利用这种叫声的录音来了解黑猩猩的大脑 。
“有更多研究表明，在某种程度上，各种动物似乎都有考虑其他动物想法的能力 。比如，它们似乎能了解其他动物看到了什么或没看到什么 。
当听到“放松呼呼声”的黑猩猩遇到假蛇时，它们会发出大量警告信号，既发出警报叫声，也会使用肢体语言 。但是，在碰到假蛇前听到“警戒呼呼声”的黑猩猩，很少会发出警报叫声——显然，它们对同伴发现了危险感到很满意 。这项研究结果发表在《科学进展》期刊上 。
看起来人类、黑猩猩和其他灵长类动物，都能够根据他们认为的预期接受者的想法来调整交流 。显然，对于拥有复杂社交生活的智慧生物来说，这是一种有用的能力 。
谢谢大家收听科学美国人——60秒科学 。我是杰森·古德曼 。
1. take into account 考虑到；把…计算在内；
例句：You have to take capital appreciation of the property into account.
2. to a certain extent 在一定程度上；
例句：To a certain extent it's easier for men to get work.
3. be aware of 注意到的；察觉到的；意识到的；
例句：The question remains whether he was fully aware of the claims.
4. come across 偶然发现；偶然遇见；
例句：I came across a group of children playing.