Study: Rich Cities Largely Responsible for Greenhouse Gases
Rich cities around the world are largely responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, says a new study.
The study measures emissions based on the use of goods and services, such as food, clothing and electronics, by people living inside cities. It includes the impact of trade of such goods between points of production and use.
This is a change from traditional measures, which look at emissions from production of goods.
When measuring these gases based on consumption, rather than manufacturing, the biggest emitters are mainly cities in North America and Europe. The study found their emissions were 60 percent higher than currently estimated.
Researchers shared this information this month at a United Nations climate conference in Edmonton, a city in Alberta, Canada.
About 750 city leaders, university researchers and scientists from 80 countries took part. They discussed the latest climate research and what local governments can do to fight climate change.
Attendee Mark Watts is the head of C40, the organization that did the study. C40 is an alliance of more than 90 cities working to fight climate change. The study examined 79 cities that are part of the alliance.
Watts said this newer method offers a fuller picture of greenhouse gas emissions by linking them to consumers rather than manufacturers.
The new estimates put the responsibility on richer consumers and "increase(s) the scope of things that policy makers in cities" can do to lower emissions, he said.
Cities use more than two-thirds of the world's energy.
Big cities, big problem
The new estimate comes at a time when there is concern that national governments will not meet the climate promises they made in 2015 in Paris.
Traditionally researchers have considered manufacturing countries such as China and India among the top emitters of greenhouse gases. This study shows that the demand for and use of the products of such manufacturers is part of the overall process of greenhouse gas emissions.
Debra Roberts is one of the heads of the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. She said that using consumption-based measures was "revolutionary."
"But ... these are ideas whose time is probably almost imminent," she told the Thomson Reuters Foundation during the conference.
I'm Alice Bryant.
1.look at 检查；考虑
We have set up a task force to look at the question of women returning to work.
2.at a time 一次；在某一时刻
Can I borrow two books at a time?
3.Climate Change 气候变换
Global climate change is also on this year's agenda.
4.greenhouse gas 温室气体
Light-duty vehicles also contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, fuel use and air pollution.
5.About 750 city leaders, university researchers and scientists from 80 countries took part.
took part 参加
Three-quarters of the country's workers took part in the strike.
She took part in a BBC radio phone-in programme.
6.The new estimates put the responsibility on richer consumers and "increase(s) the scope of things that policy makers in cities" can do to lower emissions, he said.
put the responsibility on 把责任推卸给...
Perhaps it is unfair to put all the responsibility on one luckless cat.
When a man is going to do something foolish he prefers, if possible, to put the responsibility on to someone else.
研究以城市人口在衣、食、电子产品等商品和服务的消耗量为依据测量了温室气体排放量 。该研究还涉及这些商品在生产节点和使用节点之间进行交易所产生的影响 。
当以消耗类数据而非制造业数据来测量温室气体排放量时，可以看出，排放温室气体最多的主要为北美和欧洲城市 。该研究发现，这些城市的温室气体排放量比目前估测的高60% 。
来自80个国家的约750名市长、大学研究人员、科学家参加了这次会议 。他们讨论了这项最近的气候研究，以及各地政府该如何应对气候变化 。
马克·沃茨（Mark Watts）是组织并完成该研究的城市气候领导联盟（C40）的与会代表 。C40是90多个城市组成的联盟，目的是应对气候变化 。该研究检测了联盟中79个城市的气候变化 。
以前，研究人员认为，中国和印度等制造业大国是温室气体排放的罪魁祸首 。但这项研究表明，对于制造业大国所生产产品的需求和使用也是温室气体排放的部分原因 。
黛布拉·罗伯茨（Debra Roberts）是联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会的首脑之一 。她表示，这种以产品消耗为依据的测量方式“具有变革性 。”