President Trump is making good on his pledge to protect the U.S. steel and aluminum industries. This afternoon, the president ordered steep tariffs on imported steel and aluminum. Critics, including Republicans in Congress, warn the move will drive up prices and could spark retaliation by other countries. The impact was softened somewhat because Trump exempted imported metal from both Mexico and Canada — that's the leading U.S. supplier. In a few minutes, we'll hear what lawmakers have to say. First, NPR's Scott Horsley joins us from the White House. Hey, Scott.
SCOTT HORSLEY, BYLINE: Good to be with you.
KELLY: We have been awaiting this formal order for a week since the president first telegraphed his intent to impose tariffs. What was the scene like there at the White House?
HORSLEY: Well, the event took place in the Roosevelt Room. There were some cabinet officials on hand and a lot of men and some women in blue jeans and holding hard hats. They looked on as the president signed orders imposing a 25 percent tariff on imported steel and a 10 percent tariff on imported aluminum. Those are actually larger levies than the Commerce Department had recommended. The president says he wants to protect homegrown steel mills and aluminum smelters that he considers vital to national security.
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PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP: We want to build our ships. We want to build our planes. We want to build our military equipment with steel, with aluminum from our country.
HORSLEY: This was the strongest move to date by a president who campaigned on an aggressive protectionist platform. And it comes, Mary Louise, on the same day that 11 other countries around the Asia-Pacific region were actually signing that big trade agreement that Donald Trump pulled out of.
KELLY: Indeed it is. What's going on with the exemptions we just mentioned for Canada and Mexico because initially the president had said these tariffs need to apply to everybody — every country?
HORSLEY: He did. He was worried that otherwise any country that was exempted would just become a backdoor for imports from the rest of the world to come through and evade the tariff. But after tremendous pressure, Trump agreed to at least a temporary exemption for Canada and Mexico that could be extended. It sort of depends on how talks proceed on extending — or rewriting the North American Free Trade Agreement. And the president said he might grant exemptions to other U.S. allies as well. The carve-out for Canada is especially important because, as you mentioned, that's the biggest exporter of steel and aluminum. Canada accounts for about 16 percent of imported steel in this country and 41 percent of imported aluminum.
KELLY: Well, how big a deal is this today for steel and aluminum workers?
HORSLEY: For the workers, it's a big deal. Both these industries have been badly beaten up by foreign competition. I talked this week with Mark Goodfellow who heads the Steelworkers Local in Massena, N.Y., where there's an Alcoa aluminum smelter. Their workforces — only about a third of what it was two decades ago. But Goodfellow says, with this announcement, things are looking up.
MARK GOODFELLOW: Everybody's just happy that we're — it feels like the American workers is getting a break and finally getting a shot to compete on a level-playing field.
HORSLEY: We had an announcement this week that U.S. Steel plans to restart one of two idle blast furnaces in Illinois and call back 500 workers. Also Century Aluminum is planning to invest money in an advanced aluminum smelter and hire an extra 300 workers in Kentucky.
KELLY: In Kentucky. Why has the president faced so much opposition though?
HORSLEY: Well, for every worker in a steel mill or an aluminum smelter, there are more than 40 who work in industries that use steel and aluminum. And those companies will have higher costs and could be at a disadvantage. Here's how Missouri Senator Roy Blunt put it in a meeting with the president.
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ROY BLUNT: We make aluminum, and we make steel in Missouri. But we buy a lot of aluminum, and we buy a lot of steel as well. From bass boats to beer cans, there's a lot of aluminum out there.
HORSLEY: And there's also the threat that there could be retaliation by other countries against U.S. exports.
KELLY: All right. Thank you, Scott.
HORSLEY: You're welcome.
KELLY: NPR's Scott Horsley at the White House.
特朗普总统兑现了他保护美国钢铁工业和铝工业的承诺 。今天下午，总统下令对进口钢铁和铝征收高额关税 。包括国会共和党人在内的批评人士警告称，此举将抬高价格，而且可能引发其他国家的报复 。不过这一举动的影响多少有所减轻，因为特朗普豁免了进口自墨西哥和加拿大的金属关税，而加拿大是美国钢铝的主要供应商 。稍后我们将了解议员的想法 。首先，NPR新闻的斯科特·霍斯利将从白宫带来报道 。你好，斯科特 。
霍斯利：签署仪式在白宫罗斯福厅举行 。现场有一些内阁官员，还有很多身穿蓝色工装裤手持安全帽的男性和女性 。他们观看了总统签署关税令的过程，该命令要求对进口钢材和铝材分别征收25%及10%的关税 。这些税率比美国商务部的建议还要高 。总统表示，他想保护本土钢铁厂和铝厂，他认为这对美国的国家安全至关重要 。
唐纳德·特朗普总统：我们想建造船只 。我们想建造飞机 。我们想用自己国家生产的钢铁和铝建造军事设备 。
霍斯利：这是迄今为止，推行激进保护主义平台的总统所采取的最强硬举措 。玛丽·路易斯，在总统签署关税令这天，亚太地区另外11个国家签署了唐纳德·特朗普退出的重要贸易协定 。
凯莉：没错 。我们刚才提到加拿大和墨西哥获得豁免，这是怎么回事？因为一开始总统说这些关税必须适用于所有国家 。
霍斯利：对，他是说过 。他担心如果不这样规定，那获得豁免的国家会成为来自其他国家进口产品的后门，他们可能会逃避关税 。但是因为面临极大的压力，特朗普同意暂时豁免加拿大和墨西哥，豁免期可能会延长 。这取决于扩大或修订北美自贸协定的谈判进程 。总统表示，他可能也会豁免其他美国盟友 。加拿大避免关税尤为重要，因为如你所说，加拿大是钢铝产品最大的出口国 。加拿大的钢材进口占美国钢材进口总量的16%，自加拿大的铝进口也占美国铝进口总量的41% 。
霍斯利：对工人来说非常重要 。这两个产业因为外国竞争而严重受创 。本周我采访了纽约州马塞纳联合炼钢工人地方工会的负责人马克·古德费洛，该地有美国铝业公司设的铝厂 。现在该工厂的工人总数只有20年前的三分之一 。但是古德费洛表示，在关税声明宣布后，情况将开始好转 。
霍斯利：本周，美国钢铁公司宣布，他们计划重启伊利诺伊州两座闲置高炉中的其中一个，并招聘500名工人 。另外，美国世纪铝业公司也计划投资一家先进铝厂，并在肯塔基州雇佣300名工人 。
霍斯利：对在钢铁厂和铝厂工作的所有工人来说，有超过40%的工人在使用钢铁和铝的产业中工作 。这些公司将增加成本，而且可能处于不利的地位 。下面是密苏里州参议员罗伊·布朗特在同总统会面时所说的话 。
罗伊·布朗特：我们在密苏里州制造铝和钢铁 。但是我们也会购买大量的铝和钢铁 。大到渔船，小到啤酒罐，都需要大量铝 。
1. make good on 兑现，履行（诺言等）；
例句：She was ready to make good on a pledge from long ago.
2. on hand 在手头；在近处；现有；
例句：The Bridal Department will have experts on hand to give you all the help and advice you need.
3. to date 迄今；到目前为止；
例句：Police have stressed that this is the most accurate description of the killer to date.
4. look up 改善；好转；
例句：Things could be looking up in the computer industry.
5. at a disadvantage 处于不利的境地；
例句：The children from poor families were at a distinct disadvantage.