科学美国人60秒:蛾子可分泌毒液来防御
日期:2018-03-05 11:40

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Jason G. Goldman.
Got a minute?
Meet the wood tiger moth. Its bright yellow, red, or orange scales send a warning to potential predators.
"These wonderful conspicuous colors tend to be connected, or linked, to some sort of chemical defense. So when we see the reaction of the birds to them, then we got interested in studying in more detail the chemical defenses per se."
Biologist Bibiana Rojas from Finland's University of Jyväskylä.
Animals that pair visual warnings with other defenses are called aposematic. If a hungry predator were to try chowing down on this moth, it would find a mouthful of nasty-tasting, possibly even toxic, bug parts.
Rojas and her team found that the wood tiger moth secretes nasty fluids from glands on its neck and from its abdomen. At first glance, this seems like a fairly routine sort of defensive strategy. After all, nature is full of redundant processes.

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But the researchers discovered that the wood tiger moth is the first species known in which the different fluids from the different parts of the moths' body each target a different type of predator.
The fluids from the moth's abdomen deter ants, but are completely useless against birds. Meanwhile, the neck fluids are unpalatable to birds, but don't bother ants. In fact, the ants actually preferred this fluid to sugar water. The finding is in the Proceedings of the Royal Society: B.
So we now have the first example of an animals having multiple, independent chemical defenses. But is it truly unique?
"We think that this just opens the possibility that there are more species that have this, we just need to get the evidence for that."
Which means looking beyond just...looking.
"We, as humans, are very visual. Everything that excites us comes mostly by our eyes. We want to highlight with this study that there is a whole world of chemical stimuli that we perhaps have been overlooking just because we can not detect and we can not perceive the way that other animals do."
Thanks for the minute for Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Jason G. Goldman.

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参考译文

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这里是科学美国人——60秒科学Sc#trC7qZgkI|!9w。我是杰森·古德曼A)f(8;x8(pH;
有一分钟时间吗?
来认识一下车前灯蛾b;OF0VHrute。它身上那亮黄、亮红或亮橙色的鳞片向潜在捕食者发出了警告CD[f&p_ZQh|r!--h
“这些奇妙又显眼的颜色与某种化学防御有关系或联系Yim&!gA0IvB1.+Mh,Tw。因此,当我们看到鸟类对这些蛾子的反应时,我们想对化学防御本身的更多细节展开研究RZm&OY-ldyv。”
于韦斯屈莱大学的生物学家碧碧安娜·罗哈斯说到~gUj^c4*4#DpBLTged8e
将视觉警戒和其他防御一起使用的动物是具有警戒色的动物xi8%n+M(KGjEB。如果饥饿的捕食者想吞掉这只蛾子,那它吃掉的会是一口难以下咽、可能还有毒的昆虫器官!;8RG*3^p1PRmYO~VaC9
罗哈斯和团队发现,车前灯蛾的颈部和腹部会分泌出难闻的液体V69M!o5~u|IL。乍一看,这似乎是相当常见的防御策略L+Bb!TP+BNC。毕竟,自然界到处都是重复的过程UUd6yS5~;6~WDVMt5Hz
但是研究人员发现,针对不同种类的捕食者,车前灯蛾会从身体的不同部位分泌出不同的液体,而这在人类已知动物行为中是首例5YgQ93NHu[=m
蛾子腹部分泌的液体可以驱逐蚂蚁,但是对鸟类却完全不起作用+T4T,!;pfhF(C,。同时,蛾子颈部分泌的液体会让鸟类难以忍受,但是却不会令蚂蚁感到困扰G[Yo(qwOIQedKb3jsm.6。实际上,与糖水相比,蚂蚁更喜欢这种液体vL&~N~38PsdHrMj。这一研究结果发表在《英国皇家学会学报:B辑》上a)&,4.idnjHo
现在,我们找到了第一种拥有多重且独立的化学防御机制的动物GbgC_yAl*dYZjJ。但是车前灯蛾是唯一拥有这种机制的动物吗?
“这一研究只是打开了这种可能性,我们认为有更多物种拥有这种机制,我们只是需要证据来证明uYax+NNWKq0cHeEKN。”
这也就意味着向前看,继续寻找o#dmn()M*lTui
“我们人类非常依赖视觉nJ2vYY@Dq9mDtT|*c0Os。一切能使我们兴奋的事物大多来自视觉yJ-+Y34HQ!Vba.e]。我们希望用这项研究强调的是,我们可能一直忽略了化学刺激这一领域,因为我们没能察觉并感知其它动物发生化学刺激的方式Zve+d;HSqk;pi@qg。”
谢谢大家收听科学美国人——60秒科学,VXWtW7u@@bfR1Ex|^3。我是杰森·古德曼t7mEl@-i-1RxZ

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点讲解

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重点讲解:
1. per se 本身;本质上;
例句:The job, per se, isn't particularly interesting, but it pays well.
这工作本身并不是特别有意思,但报酬很高P_w_(Tw*;ZN=
2. at first glance 乍一看;乍看上去;
例句:At first glance, it would be tempting to agree.
乍一看,会让人很想同意ebUrlmt~+#aS
3. after all 毕竟;终究;
例句:After all, the worst the boss can do is say no if you ask him.
毕竟,如果你向老板提出请求,最糟糕的情况也不过就是他说“不行”JT|(uzdSl9s_aXP(Y)t
4. be full of 充满(某一情感或特质)的;
例句:This is a book full of profound, original and challenging insights.
这本书充满了深刻、新颖、令人深思的见解l2wIm|JMeo

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重点单词
  • perceivevt. 察觉,感觉,认知,理解
  • glancev. 一瞥,扫视,匆匆一看,反光,闪烁,掠过 n. 一瞥
  • strategyn. 战略,策略
  • conspicuousadj. 显著的,显而易见的,显眼的
  • highlightn. 加亮区,精彩部分,最重要的细节或事件,闪光点 vt
  • detervt. 阻止,抑制,威吓
  • defensen. 防卫,防卫物,辩护 vt. 防守
  • predatorn. 食肉动物,掠夺者
  • redundantadj. 多余的,失业的
  • botherv. 使恼怒,使不安,烦扰,费心 n. 烦扰,麻烦,焦急