VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):科学家探索蝙蝠的长寿之谜
日期:2018-02-24 13:26

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Do Bats Hold the Secret to Long Life?
Bats are the only mammals that can fly a great distance, but they have another ability. Many bats live a very long time for an animal their size.
European researchers are studying bats to understand why they live so long. They hope to make discoveries aimed at fighting the aging process in human beings.
Last week, the group of scientists said they had identified important biological qualities in some bat species.
The group studied bat chromosomes, a line of genes found in the nucleus of cells. The scientists were most interested in structures connected to the ends of the chromosomes. They are called telomeres.
Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes, which shorten each time a cell divides. Scientists believe this shortening process causes cells to break down. They say this is what causes aging.
A report on bats was published this month in the journal Science Advances.
Among the leaders of the study was Emma Teeling, a biologist with University College Dublin in Ireland.
Teeling said studying long-living mammals that have developed ways to fight aging "is an alternative way to identify the molecular basis of extended ‘health spans.'"
She added that studying bats enables scientists to learn more about the processes "that drive healthy aging."
The European researchers studied 493 bats from four bat species. The group used information that had been gathered over more than 60 years.
Of these animals, the greater mouse-eared bat generally lived the longest, an average of 37 years.
The scientists said this and a related species, which are grouped together under the name Myotis, had telomeres that did not shorten with age.
Another Myotis bat holds the record for oldest age, reaching 41 years.
The scientists' findings suggest that these bats' cells have the ability to maintain and repair their telomeres. This, they said, helps guard against the aging process.
Based on its body size, a bat like the greater mouse-eared bat would be expected to live four years. But, these mammals have been found to live nearly 10 times longer than that.
The scientists found that only 19 species of mammals live longer than humans when their body size is considered. Eighteen of these are bats. The only exception is an unusual African rodent, the naked mole rat.
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重点解析

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1.human beings 人类

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All human beings are much more intelligent than animals.
所有的人都比动物聪明得多7qAvYv90PZ

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2.bat species 蝙蝠物种

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Despite the tiny eyes and nocturnal lifestyle, none of the roughly 1,100 bat species are blind.
尽管它们的眼睛很小而且总在夜间活动,但所有1100种蝙蝠都不是瞎子sg(iHKJ3S(

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3.body size 体型

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They have the largest ears in relation to body size of any cat.
它们的耳朵与身体比例是各种猫中最大的i0(zB9YSunrQEK|-

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4.an average of 平均

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The boats remain at sea for an average of ten days at a time.
这些船只每次在海上平均航行10天N|5.4b=h3p-p5

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5.Scientists believe this shortening process causes cells to break down.

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break down 分解;发生故障;破裂

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Their car broke down.
他们的车子出故障了zpP8jn#vHn8^Qs_8G.%
Talks with business leaders broke down last night.
昨晚与商界领导人的谈判破裂了6R*WjhDd,E[0bIGW

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6.The group studied bat chromosomes, a line of genes found in the nucleus of cells.

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a line of 一系列;一连串

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The trees cast a line of long shadows.
树木投下了一排长长的影子VXy=v|oom!p
A line of trees fringed the pool.
水池周围种植着一排树木e.1[44sYIixcFNBd@yb

参考译文

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科学家探索蝙蝠的长寿之谜
蝙蝠是唯一可长距离飞行的哺乳动物,但是它们还有一种能力&XJ6v1JF)UqiN。对于同样体型的动物来说,许多蝙蝠的寿命较长GEA5,^mir@M
欧洲研究人员正在研究蝙蝠,探索它们长寿的秘诀uuXM#J7&1E~6y6.or6。他们希望能在对抗人类衰老的过程中有所发现~P@xD0mncmbij(4!;d@
上周,这些科学家称已经发现了一些蝙蝠物种中的重要生物特性fGh~NXT@Cax
科学家们研究了蝙蝠的染色体,这是细胞核中发现的一组基因f#L!4~pjmMtg。科学家们对连接染色体末端的结构最感兴趣,这一结构被称为“端粒”B^daX~3atRAYs|Rc;N

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蝙蝠长寿的秘诀.jpg
端粒会保护染色体两端,随着每次细胞分裂,染色体两端会缩短qJLRSBHIIVFLMg^_q1。科学家们认为这种缩短的过程会导致细胞分解死亡|buNPkixpGV。他们指出,这是导致衰老的原因KYAxAwo|zM1JV#U
本月,《科学进展》杂志发表了一篇关于蝙蝠的报告!zKCC&[m+LmBY(S
爱尔兰都柏林大学生物学家艾玛·泰琳(Emma Teeling)是该研究的主要负责人之一aP3L^A[,_R,
泰琳表示,通过研究长寿哺乳动物开发出多种抗衰老的方法,这是“找出长寿的分子基础的另一种办法f^3^s22mw2!pV%。”
她补充说,研究蝙蝠让科学家们能够更多地了解“推动健康衰老”的过程AgPYq;]+H~fuAXS
欧洲研究人员分析了来自4类蝙蝠物种的493只蝙蝠,他们使用了60多年来收集的信息!=e[2|o|]&P
在这些动物中,通常大鼠耳蝠的寿命最长,其平均寿命为37岁WaU&Mjzt+q7!MD
科学家们表示,这种蝙蝠及相关物种都属于鼠耳蝠属,它们的端粒不会随着年龄增长而缩短xMAh_wdJz%Y
另一种鼠耳蝠属的蝙蝠保持了41岁的最长寿记录5Qd@(+ePw4V
科学家们的发现表明,这些蝙蝠的细胞拥有维持和修复自身端粒的能力Bugui1H.i3。科学家们表示,这有助于防止衰老F-)p%vpN2.W5YA
根据体型大小,大鼠耳蝠这类蝙蝠的预期寿命为4年JUi*SvFEwO1-UMI^!A。但是人们发现,这些哺乳动物的寿命远超预期寿命近10倍Ub=,5idDgA_jJ!Lx|I
科学家们发现,考虑到体型大小因素,只有19种哺乳动物物种的寿命比人类长,其中18种为蝙蝠GHGp&y5_PxvK2jT。另外的一种是不常见的非洲啮齿动物裸鼹鼠.;9wm9K(~)b
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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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