VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):咖啡到底有益还是有害?
日期:2018-01-10 13:38

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Large Review of Coffee Studies Finds ... Not Much New
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
Which is more popular -- coffee or tea?
If you are on Team Coffee, your team may be ahead.
The well-known U.S. coffee shop Starbucks just opened its largest store in the land of tea: China!
The Shanghai Starbucks is 2,700 square meters and employs more than 400 people.
But now for the health question: Is coffee good for us?
There have been many studies on the health benefits of coffee. Recently, researchers at the University of Southampton's Faculty of Medicine in Great Britain looked at results from 201 observational coffee studies and 17 clinical trials of coffee.
With this "umbrella review," researchers wanted to find a clear answer on whether coffee is good for us or not.
They discovered that coffee drinkers had a lower risk of heart and liver disease and some cancers. Coffee drinkers also had a lower risk of dying from stroke.
However, their findings are uncertain. The researchers could not prove coffee was the cause of these lowered risks.
One of the researchers of this umbrella review is Robin Poole. Poole's team notes that their umbrella review included mainly observational data. Therefore, they could not prove any cause and effect relationship.
The National Institutes of Health in the United States define an "observational uncontrolled study" as a study where "researchers simply watch what happens to a series of people in one group." There is no control group.
Still, researchers found that the benefits of moderate coffee drinking seem to outweigh the risks. Their report says that drinking coffee "was more often associated with benefit than harm."
Poole calls these findings "headline benefits."
"There are some headline benefits such as a lower risk of dying from any cause, a lower risk of dying from heart disease and stroke and a lower risk of developing heart disease in the first place. And for those outcomes the maximum benefit was around three to four cups of coffee per day."
Poole means that if people read only the headline, they may think that the results are simply positive. But he warns that the coffee story is much more complicated.
He advises people to not drink more than four cups a day. And not everyone should drink so much coffee.
Researchers found that:
- Too much coffee during pregnancy can be dangerous.
- People, especially women, whose bones break easily should limit how much coffee they drink.
- People with abnormal heart beat patterns are advised to drink decaffeinated coffee.
Healthy coffee is black coffee
In addition, the scientists point out that the research was only about coffee. Yet many coffee drinkers don't just drink coffee. They put sugar into it. They add milk or cream. They may have a baked treat on the side.
Researcher Robin Poole warns that to get the full health benefits of coffee, keep it simple. Drinking it black is the healthiest. And skip the pastries.
"It is not about the sugar and the syrups and the biscuits, cakes and pastries. And we would urge people who are already drinking moderate amounts of coffee -- about the three or four cups per day mark -- to enjoy it, but try and make it as healthy as possible because standard health messages still apply to those other things."
The researchers found that the greatest benefit to drinking coffee seemed to be in fighting liver diseases. Based on that finding, they are planning a clinical test using coffee as a treatment for cirrhosis, a serious liver disease.
But the final takeaway is the same as before: If you drink coffee, keep it simple and don't eat the pastries or other baked treats that often come with a cup of coffee.
And if you're not coffee drinker, you don't need to start drinking coffee to be healthier.
And that's the Health & Lifestyle report.
I'm Anna Matteo.

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重点解析

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1.clinical trial 临床试验

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Two years is a long time for them to wait for clinical trial findings.
为了临床试验结果再等待两年对他们来说太漫长了B0;&@C==|t3B952T

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2.point out 指出

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Critics point out that the prince, on his income, should be paying tax
批评家指出王子的收入应该纳税_1zePO.i,f.5X|^8

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3.In addition 除此之外

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In addition, the respondent disclosed professional confidences to one of the patients.
另外,被告还向其中一位病人透露了行业机密v]*(&LQjZ3_1zPc

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4.black coffee 黑咖啡

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Newman poured more black coffee and lit a cigarette.
纽曼又倒了些黑咖啡,接着点了支烟UOcGrjXB+9H@

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5.Based on that finding, they are planning a clinical test using coffee as a treatment for cirrhosis, a serious liver disease.

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Based on 基于

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The selection process is based on rigorous tests of competence and experience.
选拔过程是基于对能力和经验的严格测试ojIQNMG0MIv&,gKZ
The study was based on data from 2,100 women.
这项研究基于从2,100名女性那里收集来的资料TuUNxD7NqffVqO%Rm

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6."There are some headline benefits such as a lower risk of dying from any cause, a lower risk of dying from heart disease and stroke and a lower risk of developing heart disease in the first place.

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in the first place 当初;一开始

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I don't think we should have been there in the first place.
我认为我们从一开始就不该在那儿Vll)SL0U)Y|8
I'm amazed they had the cheek to ask in the first place.
我真惊讶他们当初竟然有脸问@|kFf&6Dwuw

参考译文

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咖啡到底好不好?研究人员也说不清
这里是VOA慢速英语健康生活报道cHd|_vtL0zJ_INUG
咖啡和茶哪个更受欢迎?
如果你选择咖啡,那么咖啡就多一分x0g4JyR4Q;Yp1+&ZI
美国著名咖啡店星巴克在素有“茶叶王国”之称的中国开设了一家最大的门店!
上海星巴克占地2700平方米,拥有400多名员工,GEqpp+p@]4KA-8
现在的健康问题是:咖啡对人体有益吗?
其实有很多关于咖啡有益健康的研究hc%aS~m2IE0pJ。最近,英国南安普顿大学医学院的研究人员对咖啡进行了研究,他们观察了201项观测性研究和17项临床试验的结果2;sptf|[^8!Bgfr~@
在“全面性研究”的帮助下,研究人员想要寻找一个明确的答案:咖啡是否对健康有益[a*ld(EjczxXE0__

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咖啡有益还是有害.jpg
他们发现,常喝咖啡的人患心脏病、肝病和某些癌症的风险较低HCTP#I;]AT。这类人死于中风的风险也偏低-fN@DzJuXY
然而,他们的发现尚不确定~s6s2v;z+T&ab。研究人员无法证明咖啡是这些低风险的关键原因]ZdSE&q.c]e%-O
罗宾·普尔是“全面性研究”的研究人员之一2V7+yXgR1h8WjmxQL。普尔的团队注意到,他们的“全面性研究”主要是观察数据w7fQ%%qIp4f)F;X,sehc。因此,他们无法证实任何因果关系#eQTgsqc&gSWm3pI.Ya@
根据美国国家卫生研究院的定义,“不受控制的观测性研究”是“研究人员只观察某组群体中一部分人的情况”的研究D-C^HU2d8DGkY,mx0*2。这种研究没有实验对照组KLhAtuW28M
不过,研究人员发现,适量饮用咖啡的好处似乎大于风险g7fGwf)jS|mwCJ[。他们的报告指出,喝咖啡的“好处多于坏处Ihaxu_fUB^7&。”
普尔称这些发现为“明显的好处”nF1[_9DFCAzOkD1KH
“有一些明显的好处,例如降低任何疾病的死亡风险,降低死于心脏病和中风的风险以及降低早期患心脏病的风险b-^*GtF]ipO6dsiv3^z。鉴于此,每天喝3至4杯咖啡能够产生最佳效果-Qdms0+CFqNy|aT9。”
普尔是指,如果人们只看标题,可能会认为结果是积极的tV,fgCz~g(NP9。但他提醒我们,咖啡其实要复杂得多_k=a9|yB1&cZ&(~2
他建议,每天最多喝4杯咖啡Ps&RgBQPA;fDc,。而且不是所有人都符合这一标准@LghMI-_mWc=xrSOK++m
研究人员发现:怀孕期间喝太多咖啡十分危险gJ-I^6hhh*
一些特殊人群,尤其是女性容易骨折,饮用咖啡时需要限量q*(pnTh#*Q6jnb^%
心跳不规律者建议饮用不含咖啡因的咖啡IvA9ubRBpK
此外,科学家们指出,这项研究理论只限于咖啡=Vm23@4sSg.kW_mTJouz。然而,许多咖啡爱好者不仅仅喝咖啡NS@^h2R65fIT#|。他们还喜欢加糖%[Fn0jb*mK&te。有的人会添加牛奶或奶油N**.t~1EbqC。他们还可能同时搭配一些烘焙食品p4t|!m2xSa
普尔提醒人们,如果想充分获得咖啡的益处,就要尽量简单化gV~rEBw5l=,_uV]vjOL。黑咖啡是最有益于健康的.;N#=Y-tzO)。糕点就免了吧Z*S8nG|=I3mF
“这与糖、糖浆、饼干、蛋糕和甜点无关NWN@W)7y)w~~。我们会劝说那些喝过适量咖啡(每日3、4杯)的人——尽情享用这些食物,但是尽量保持健康饮食,因为标准的健康饮食也同样适用于其他食物3,@5Le[=~c。”
研究人员发现喝咖啡最大的好处可能是对抗肝脏疾病3hLcMT,SQ!hZ(d。基于这一发现,他们正计划利用咖啡对肝硬化进行临床试验,肝硬化是一种严重的肝病RsO]X4%y8xrZ&C^
不过,最终的结论仍然是:如果你喝咖啡,请保持简单,不要同时食用甜点或其他烘焙食品-SvHIKV6^1US2P,e
如果你不喝咖啡,也不必喝咖啡来保持健康yEYwg3PZVl*b98X=!X
以上为健康生活报道的全部内容y2v-BM8pZ~tiI
安娜·马特奥为您播报o!Tf.;-QEoORwDdqFu

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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