Large Review of Coffee Studies Finds ... Not Much New
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
Which is more popular -- coffee or tea?
If you are on Team Coffee, your team may be ahead.
The well-known U.S. coffee shop Starbucks just opened its largest store in the land of tea: China!
The Shanghai Starbucks is 2,700 square meters and employs more than 400 people.
But now for the health question: Is coffee good for us?
There have been many studies on the health benefits of coffee. Recently, researchers at the University of Southampton's Faculty of Medicine in Great Britain looked at results from 201 observational coffee studies and 17 clinical trials of coffee.
With this "umbrella review," researchers wanted to find a clear answer on whether coffee is good for us or not.
They discovered that coffee drinkers had a lower risk of heart and liver disease and some cancers. Coffee drinkers also had a lower risk of dying from stroke.
However, their findings are uncertain. The researchers could not prove coffee was the cause of these lowered risks.
One of the researchers of this umbrella review is Robin Poole. Poole's team notes that their umbrella review included mainly observational data. Therefore, they could not prove any cause and effect relationship.
The National Institutes of Health in the United States define an "observational uncontrolled study" as a study where "researchers simply watch what happens to a series of people in one group." There is no control group.
Still, researchers found that the benefits of moderate coffee drinking seem to outweigh the risks. Their report says that drinking coffee "was more often associated with benefit than harm."
Poole calls these findings "headline benefits."
"There are some headline benefits such as a lower risk of dying from any cause, a lower risk of dying from heart disease and stroke and a lower risk of developing heart disease in the first place. And for those outcomes the maximum benefit was around three to four cups of coffee per day."
Poole means that if people read only the headline, they may think that the results are simply positive. But he warns that the coffee story is much more complicated.
He advises people to not drink more than four cups a day. And not everyone should drink so much coffee.
Researchers found that:
- Too much coffee during pregnancy can be dangerous.
- People, especially women, whose bones break easily should limit how much coffee they drink.
- People with abnormal heart beat patterns are advised to drink decaffeinated coffee.
Healthy coffee is black coffee
In addition, the scientists point out that the research was only about coffee. Yet many coffee drinkers don't just drink coffee. They put sugar into it. They add milk or cream. They may have a baked treat on the side.
Researcher Robin Poole warns that to get the full health benefits of coffee, keep it simple. Drinking it black is the healthiest. And skip the pastries.
"It is not about the sugar and the syrups and the biscuits, cakes and pastries. And we would urge people who are already drinking moderate amounts of coffee -- about the three or four cups per day mark -- to enjoy it, but try and make it as healthy as possible because standard health messages still apply to those other things."
The researchers found that the greatest benefit to drinking coffee seemed to be in fighting liver diseases. Based on that finding, they are planning a clinical test using coffee as a treatment for cirrhosis, a serious liver disease.
But the final takeaway is the same as before: If you drink coffee, keep it simple and don't eat the pastries or other baked treats that often come with a cup of coffee.
And if you're not coffee drinker, you don't need to start drinking coffee to be healthier.
And that's the Health & Lifestyle report.
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.clinical trial 临床试验
Two years is a long time for them to wait for clinical trial findings.
2.point out 指出
Critics point out that the prince, on his income, should be paying tax
3.In addition 除此之外
In addition, the respondent disclosed professional confidences to one of the patients.
4.black coffee 黑咖啡
Newman poured more black coffee and lit a cigarette.
5.Based on that finding, they are planning a clinical test using coffee as a treatment for cirrhosis, a serious liver disease.
Based on 基于
The selection process is based on rigorous tests of competence and experience.
The study was based on data from 2,100 women.
6."There are some headline benefits such as a lower risk of dying from any cause, a lower risk of dying from heart disease and stroke and a lower risk of developing heart disease in the first place.
in the first place 当初；一开始
I don't think we should have been there in the first place.
I'm amazed they had the cheek to ask in the first place.
其实有很多关于咖啡有益健康的研究 。最近，英国南安普顿大学医学院的研究人员对咖啡进行了研究，他们观察了201项观测性研究和17项临床试验的结果 。
他们发现，常喝咖啡的人患心脏病、肝病和某些癌症的风险较低 。这类人死于中风的风险也偏低 。
然而，他们的发现尚不确定 。研究人员无法证明咖啡是这些低风险的关键原因 。
罗宾·普尔是“全面性研究”的研究人员之一 。普尔的团队注意到，他们的“全面性研究”主要是观察数据 。因此，他们无法证实任何因果关系 。
根据美国国家卫生研究院的定义，“不受控制的观测性研究”是“研究人员只观察某组群体中一部分人的情况”的研究 。这种研究没有实验对照组 。
不过，研究人员发现，适量饮用咖啡的好处似乎大于风险 。他们的报告指出，喝咖啡的“好处多于坏处 。”
“有一些明显的好处，例如降低任何疾病的死亡风险，降低死于心脏病和中风的风险以及降低早期患心脏病的风险 。鉴于此，每天喝3至4杯咖啡能够产生最佳效果 。”
普尔是指，如果人们只看标题，可能会认为结果是积极的 。但他提醒我们，咖啡其实要复杂得多 。
他建议，每天最多喝4杯咖啡 。而且不是所有人都符合这一标准 。
此外，科学家们指出，这项研究理论只限于咖啡 。然而，许多咖啡爱好者不仅仅喝咖啡 。他们还喜欢加糖 。有的人会添加牛奶或奶油 。他们还可能同时搭配一些烘焙食品 。
普尔提醒人们，如果想充分获得咖啡的益处，就要尽量简单化 。黑咖啡是最有益于健康的 。糕点就免了吧 。
“这与糖、糖浆、饼干、蛋糕和甜点无关 。我们会劝说那些喝过适量咖啡（每日3、4杯）的人——尽情享用这些食物，但是尽量保持健康饮食，因为标准的健康饮食也同样适用于其他食物 。”
研究人员发现喝咖啡最大的好处可能是对抗肝脏疾病 。基于这一发现，他们正计划利用咖啡对肝硬化进行临床试验，肝硬化是一种严重的肝病 。