VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):嘴馋其实是大脑在"作祟"?
日期:2018-01-06 11:29

(单词翻译:单击)

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Food Cravings: They're All in Your Brain.
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
We have all been there. It's 3 o'clock and you've been hard at work. As you sit at your desk, a strong desire for chocolate overcomes you. You try to busy yourself to make it go away. But it doesn't. In fact, the more you try to NOT think about a square of deep, dark chocolate melting in your mouth, the more you want it. You can even smell it!
Here is another scenario. Perhaps you are not feeling well. You're coming down with a cold and feel rundown. The only thing you want to eat is a big, bowl of chicken soup, like your mom used to make when you were sick as a child.
A food craving is a strong desire for a specific type of food. And they are normal. Most people have them even though what we crave might be different. One person might crave sweet chocolate, while another might crave salty potato chips.
Sometimes the foods we crave are not super healthy ones but rather fatty or sugary foods. Or sometimes we crave foods from our childhoods, like American meatloaf, Polish pirogues or Vietnamese pho. Other times the cravings may be for something healthy but very specific, such as Japanese sushi or Korean kimchi.
But where do food cravings come from? And how are they different from hunger?
Scientists at the website How Stuff Works compare hunger and cravings this way. Hunger is a fairly simply connection between the stomach and the brain. They even call it simply "stomach hunger."
The website explains that when our stomachs burn up all of the food we have eaten, a hormone (gherlin) sends a message to the one part of the brain, the hypothalamus, for more food. The hypothalamus regulates our most basic body functions such as thirst, hunger and sleep. The brain then releases a chemical to start the appetite. And you eat.
A craving is more complicated. It involves several areas of the brain. These areas make up the reward center of the brain. A craving can also be tied to our mental state and memory. So, some scientists call food cravings "mind hunger."
Scientists add that while hunger is a function of survival, cravings are not. People often crave foods that are high in fat and sugar and not foods that can keep us alive. Foods that are high in fat or high in sugar release chemicals in the brain. These chemicals give us feelings of pleasure and even mild (and temporary) euphoria -- much like a drug.
Back in 2004, researchers at the Monell Chemical Senses Center and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine studied food craving and the brain. They used functional magnetic resonance imaging or, fMRI, to show that food cravings activate brain areas related to emotion, memory and reward. These are the same areas of the brain activated during drug-craving studies.
The lead author of this study was Marcia Levin Pelchat, a sensory psychologist. She says that the finding of the study is "consistent with the idea that cravings of all kinds, whether for food, drugs, or designer shoes, have common mechanisms."
They work the same way in the brain. Food cravings, drug addiction, and addictive behaviors such as gambling and over-shopping follow similar neural pathways.
Studies show that our mental state affects our food cravings but not really our hunger levels. Also, our food memories affect what we crave and when. For example, if a child is given sweets when he or she feels sad or upset, that may lead to food cravings for sweets later in life. The reward system in the brain may lead us to seek out familiar pleasures.
In a 2007 study, researchers at Cambridge University found that "dieting or restricted eating generally increase the likelihood of food craving." So, the more you deny yourself a food that you want, they more you may crave it. However, fasting is a bit different. They found that eating no food at all for a short period of time, lessened food cravings.
So, the next time you crave food from your childhood or have a hankering for something very specific, know that your brain may be more to blame than your stomach.
And that's the Health & Lifestyle report.
I'm Anna Matteo.

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重点解析

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1.go away 离开;消失

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When you go away on holiday, you need to take extra security precautions
外出度假时,需要格外注意安全^dVTY7Fap=#St6

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2.lead to 导致

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A lack of prudence may lead to financial problems.
不够谨慎可能会导致财政上出现问题!sNmDimFZWKSpACSsUrj

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3.burn up 烧掉

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Fires have burned up 180,000 acres of timber.
大火烧光了18万英亩的木材5d^IS#yHFt6=qBZ@S

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4.food cravings 对食物的渴求

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This may just serve to increase your food cravings, especially in response to emotions.
这可能只会增加你对食物的渴望,特别是情绪激烈的时候D!J,E_B659(V;(

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5.People often crave foods that are high in fat and sugar and not foods that can keep us alive.

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keep alive 使...活着;热衷于

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I have told you there would be no use for you to keep alive a blind child.
我早就说过您养这个瞎孩子没用,您能养她一辈子吗?
He loved to keep alive the worship of egypt.
他热衷于保持对埃及的敬仰SqaCxwNwpCM

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6.They found that eating no food at all for a short period of time, lessened food cravings.

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a short period of time 短期内

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I have never seen such a seismic shift in public opinion in such a short period of time.
我从未见过公众舆论在如此短的时间内发生如此巨大的转变7rGEpgto-+4
How could you do it in such a short period of time?
你是怎么在如此短的时间里做到的?

参考译文

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嘴馋其实是大脑在“作祟”?
这里是VOA慢速英语健康生活报道Xe6qCIww,5+(SkBJQi
我们都遇到过这种情况fo~~Wm6K3D7LeI=S2。已经3点钟了,你一直在努力工作Yexo~.*ZWg]。坐在办公桌前的你突然产生强烈的欲望:想吃巧克力98_l_aXtbDV+k[Yw,u@。你试着让自己忙碌起来忘掉这件事GNoJ%BuaSEXgH[。但是丝毫没用s#!px0ih(_),|FUr。其实,你越逃避黑巧克力在舌尖融化的幻想,你就越想吃一块1MLEjBlH9D%~L6。你甚至能够闻到气味!
再以其他的场景为例lPvV5t=seP,(T。你可能感觉不舒服dpzBKdQZcl.i[k。你感冒了,浑身疲惫,St;ZdEW_*%4ee。只想喝一碗热乎的鸡汤,就像小时候生病时妈妈做的鸡汤@stm7oGunUZ2^u=OT
嘴馋是对某种特定食物的强烈欲望#LWR(XKzaf]。这种欲望很正常;loz[Tk0|_H6C8L。大多数人都会产生这种欲望,只是渴望的食物不同x*35J-3.Z#。有人可能想吃甜巧克力,有人可能想吃咸薯片l41CNvU.Ls(9Q-+h
有时,我们嘴馋的食物并不健康,而是高脂或含糖类食品M-c)MoQD7hYNPJH。抑或有时,我们也会怀念童年吃过的食物,如美国烘肉卷、波兰pirogue或越南米粉)S!!,HBoy09~.-。甚至有时想吃一些健康又极具特色的饮食如日本寿司或韩国泡菜yw+UTqXDZKd_z*k-B+E7

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嘴馋其实是大脑在“作祟”?.jpeg
但是,人们为什么会嘴馋?嘴馋和饥饿的区别是什么?
科学家在《原来如此》(How Stuff Works)网站将饥饿和嘴馋进行了比较(!3#%M,Hl[mUhq。饥饿是胃和大脑之间一种简单的联系x=pm)hv-PlE9!IV;。可暂且将其称为“肚子饿”R@(+hv~cubn,wqOhuOJH
该网站解释称,当胃消化完所有的食物时,一种胃肠道激素(gherlin)会向大脑的下丘脑传递信息来获取更多食物zCCnubo7AojF。下丘脑调节人体最基本的身体机能,如口渴、饥饿和睡眠(bxCX1Cz2Lr1X。然后大脑会释放一种化学物质来唤醒食欲2PQ5,XAv&q-R;。之后你就想吃东西了f30MYPdZBLm=izBufi
嘴馋更加复杂YOxTN7,uha9PL5sUe|g。这涉及大脑的数个区域.%K1iBbhoKCpX。这些区域构成了大脑的奖赏中枢kTr)1_qdKG~Mv。嘴馋还与人们的精神状态和记忆有关6#pV-+@xk4。因此,有科学家将嘴馋称为“精神饥饿”6NU#B%D(s7Nu|pnQc6!A
科学家还指出,饥饿是一种生存功能,而嘴馋则不然Sn9geij#x0@I1。例如,人们经常想吃的高脂、高糖类食物并不是我们赖以生存的食物b&LBf8)saKlCJ5c(1。高脂或高糖类食物会在大脑中释放化学物质#kqXhy6;DJhf0=H。这些化学物质给人体带来愉悦感,甚至是些许(短暂)快感——像吸毒一样4E(qWzGrTFi!MwV
早在2004年,莫奈尔化学感官中心和宾夕法尼亚大学医学院的研究人员就对嘴馋和大脑的关系进行了研究RoAiEDJoR3ALAbe8QL。他们通过功能性磁共振成像技术(fMRI)发现,嘴馋可以激活与情绪、记忆和奖赏有关的大脑区域FBD_vA;f+)f。这些大脑区域与药物渴求研究中显示的区域一样9)%HSrUdSG.up
该研究的首席作者是感知心理学家马西娅·列文·佩尔莎kCYeF_b]x^s(gR。她表示,这项研究的发现与“多种多样的渴求,无论是对食物、药物还是名牌鞋,都拥有共同机制”的观点是一致的tt(_D|r4,KF
他们在大脑中的工作机制也是一样的9WH4AF+0]#@YVw;。嘴馋、毒瘾和成瘾性行为,如赌博和过度购物,都遵循相似的神经路径QrE;sls8_UmyJ;
研究表明,人的精神状态会影响其对食物的渴求,但不会影响饥饿程度S#e0xTyhyz&.&。我们对食物的记忆也会影响嘴馋的对象与时间_fp]mih4L8b.Xx*。例如,如果孩子在悲伤或沮丧时得到糖果,以后可能会对甜食产生渴求,OYzg,bo%fv。大脑中的奖赏机制会引导人们寻找似曾相识的愉悦感Vx4ZVClcV3JIkE4,MA
剑桥大学研究人员在2007年的一项研究中发现,“节食或限制饮食通常会增加嘴馋的可能性N1wUhsO;tZ*oFq。”因此,你越是抗拒想要的食物,就会越想吃;[%.4p0YX*EarHLZ。不过,禁食就另当别论了_V+6@1gQ^Oq=t。研究人员发现,短期内不吃任何食物,那么对食物的渴求会下降YjhH5;YY*H[&W8
所以,下次当你怀念童年时的美味或渴望某种特定食物时,你要知道,真正“作祟”的不是胃而是大脑ZuL~4L-eoJ=K5-QQq
以上为健康生活报道的全部内容J|Da)bPEZB4c]=|.G
安娜·马特奥为您播报j+_^dbYs.cm2x,OjF*0

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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