VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):美国施压 联合国欲削减维和预算
日期:2017-12-18 11:40

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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What Effect Will Cuts to UN Peacekeeping Have?
One of the foreign policy goals of United States President Donald Trump's administration has been to reform United Nations peacekeeping.
The administration says that the U.N. peacekeeping missions should cut costs and that the U.S. should pay less for them.
Earlier this year, the U.N. announced it would cut its budget by $600 million. Nikki Haley, the U.S. ambassador to the U.N., supported the announcement. She said, "We're just getting started."
Vice President Mike Pence has been critical of the U.N.'s peacekeeping missions. In September, he told the U.N. Security Council that peacekeeping missions should be more efficient and need to do a better job.
Paul Williams is a professor at George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs. He said that it is a good idea to find ways to cut costs. However, he noted, blanket cuts can make it more difficult to keep soldiers safe.
Fifteen U.N. peacekeeping missions are ongoing around the world, including eight in Africa. The United States provides 28 percent of the U.N. peacekeeping budget. That is the most of any country. China is second, providing 10 percent of the budget.
Williams says the United States has a legal obligation to pay 28 percent of the peacekeeping budget. The U.S. has pushed to reduce the total budget in order to decrease the amount it has to pay.
The peacekeeping budget is now $7.3 billion.
To reduce costs, the U.N. must either close missions or reduce operations. Carrying out missions with a smaller budget could mean cutting personnel or logistical support.
Both choices concern Williams. He said U.N. peacekeepers already operate with few resources.
In early December, an attack in the Democratic Republic of Congo killed 14 Tanzanian peacekeepers and five Congolese soldiers. The attack showed the risks faced by U.N. peacekeeping missions.
The mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo will likely face more difficulties. That is because the country's president, Joseph Kabila, has refused to step down, even though he has reached his two-term limit.
Aditi Gorur is director of the Protecting Civilians in Conflict Program at The Stimson Center, a research group in Washington DC.
Gorur notes that some U.N. missions have already had large reductions.
"A big part of the motivation for those cuts was pressure from the U.S. government," she said.
Gorur worries that reductions are not well planned and "the cuts come first and then the strategy comes later."
She notes that rising levels of "local intercommunal violence" will likely continue in places like the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Williams said that, while some things can be done better with the same budget, cuts can place added pressure on peacekeepers.
I'm John Russell.

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重点解析

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1.foreign policy 外交政策

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Responsibility and moderation were to be the keynotes of their foreign policy.
责任和克制将是他们外交政策的核心=s_iQRF]i7K_eY&iCFPI

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2.well planned 计划周详的

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Everything I do is very well planned.
我所做的一切都是精心策划的[suj=)CGD2eNzMYp

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3.Carrying out 实施;进行

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You have been so prompt in carrying out all these commissions.
你执行所有这些命令可真够迅速的x|]rXFGnvcOIi35+

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4.legal obligation 法定义务

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You have a legal obligation toensure your child receives a proper education.
你有保证你的孩子接受良好教育的法定义务QJpFnmJSZ]

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5.That is because the country's president, Joseph Kabila, has refused to step down, even though he has reached his two-term limit.

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step down 辞职;下台

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Many would prefer to see him step downin favour of a younger man.
很多人更希望看到他下台,以让位给更年轻的人4hhs4ZI76R|AF5K|u!
The reactionaries will never, of their own accord, step down from the stage of history.
反动派决不会自行退出历史舞台GF6XgqkA+1P

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6.She said, "We're just getting started."

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getting started 准备开始

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I've come a long way and I feel I'm just getting started.
我走过了很多,但我觉得只是刚刚开始P]1NDj2eO+L
I am looking forward to seeing you and getting started as soon as possible.
我渴望见到你们,并尽快开始工作_vYextdW&FYZ)%e@BMy!

参考译文

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美国施压 联合国欲削减维和预算
改革联合国的维和行动是特朗普总统领导的美国政府的外交政策目标之一8Ll&Og@c_V
特朗普政府称,联合国维和行动应削减成本,同时美国应该减少这方面的投入#-RsBY!ADJuRDX5PE
年初,联合国宣布将削减6亿美元的预算yd3%MGVLry%=KKN)]。美国驻联合国大使尼基·黑利(Nikki Haley)对这一声明表示支持Mtqvy]vE092%YGJZJJ&i。她说,“我们才刚开始mdeNe[%kUk8csUb6P^。”
美国副总统彭斯一直对联合国的维和行动不满YktXp)x3z6m~a。今年9月,他向联合国安理会指出,维和行动应该更有效率,需要做得更好7aB8H47T0NA8_)hMw
保罗·威廉姆斯(Paul Williams)是乔治华盛顿大学埃利奥特国际事务学院教授j#FkZzkDvy15oI。他说,设法削减成本无可厚非ziyHy#)MLRp。不过他指出,全面削减将难以保障维和士兵的人身安全l6xCVxN8*,S

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美国施压 联合国欲削减维和预算.jpg
联合国共有15项维和行动在世界各地开展,其中有8项在非洲T5+pHet+lRf6SJaw5)=%。美国承担了联合国维和预算的28%,居各国之首kD6G+&*Dr@bb1fN。而中国承担了10%的预算,仅次于美国8z]#uUC.[5_0
威廉姆斯表示,美国承担28%的维和预算是法定义务ksw~2(3x=WQ。美国一直在削减维和总预算,以减少其必须承担的费用^|FS9DHZ*3o-GkfZ
目前的维和总预算为73亿美元f[j~yc5;fF
为了减少开支,联合国必须终止或减少维和行动RZv*Ipwy*RMoC.。在较低的预算下执行维和行动意味着削减人员或是后勤保障^I4IEs=D9n
这两种可能都让威廉姆斯感到忧心M-94hh;fkVIYBG)4=m=。他指出,联合国维和部队行动的资源本来就少iv_S[]*G0x
12月初,刚果民主共和国发生的一场袭击导致14名坦桑尼亚维和士兵和5名刚果士兵遇难P6R|6Bleys0ewwb_SUMU。这次袭击显示出联合国维和行动所面临的风险m_46L9q+,#4(A
刚果民主共和国的维和行动可能会面临更多困难*LMY*;nBKd-t|~CP+lG。因为该国总统卡比拉已经达到两届任期限制,但他拒不让位RvFVn*q!o&9N*F;!
阿迪提·格鲁尔(Aditi Gorur)是美国史汀生中心保护冲突中的平民项目负责人,这是一家位于华盛顿的研究组织JkEPF&crSAaOlrAY[9T
格鲁尔指出,部分联合国维和行动已经进行了大幅度削减Mw%P.1r)E2
她说:“很大一部分削减是因为美国政府施加的压力m2_z7M(zO_pjJj。”
格鲁尔担心削减计划并未思虑周全,并且是“先行削减之事,后出应对之策HK.qwYdHhl-。”
她指出,像刚果民主共和国这样的国家,“地方社区暴力”的上升趋势可能会持续下去+I#cOKtD&vj*,Rdo
威廉姆斯表示,虽然在同等预算下,有些事情可以做得更好,但是削减预算会向维和士兵施加压力m#xYUpQTef3lTw(P
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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • announcementn. 通知,发表,宣布
  • conflictn. 冲突,矛盾,斗争,战斗 vi. 冲突,争执,抵触
  • securityn. 安全,防护措施,保证,抵押,债券,证券
  • obligationn. 义务,责任
  • blanketn. 毛毯,覆盖物,排字版 vt. 用毯子裹,扑灭,挡风
  • announced宣布的
  • administrationn. 行政,管理,行政部门
  • criticaladj. 批评的,决定性的,危险的,挑剔的 adj. 临
  • moderationn. 缓和,适度,节制
  • personneln. 职员,人事部门