It's been a year since India's government banned the use of high-value paper money. That decision is being heavily criticized by some individuals and groups.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi – who ordered the action in November 2016 – has repeatedly defended his decision. The move removed India's 500 and 1,000 rupee notes from use.
Modi has said the ban was necessary to fight corruption and target "black money." Black money is a term used to describe undeclared wealth that is not taxed. He said the move was also intended to get rid of fake currency and reduce terror financing.
The ban affected about 86 percent of the country's currency. It led to huge cash shortages for nearly two months. Millions of people stood in long bank lines to get cash for their daily needs.
About 75 percent of India's workforce depends on the country's cash economy for employment.
Some critics say the ban greatly harmed India's economy at a time when it was experiencing healthy growth. Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has called the move "reckless."
Singh recently spoke out against the ban again, saying that nowhere in the world has any democracy undertaken such a coercive move. He said the measure was hurting small and medium businesses across the country.
The Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy is a Mumbai-based think tank. It estimated that about 1.5 million jobs were lost in the first four months of 2017 following the currency ban.
But government officials recently declared the year-old policy a success and celebrated the anniversary as "anti-black money day."
Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said on Facebook the country's dependence on cash had fallen by nearly 3.89 trillion rupees. He also said the cash to Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, rate dropped from 12 to 9 percent over the past year.
The finance ministry said the policy led to about 5.6 million new taxpayers being added. And the Reserve Bank of India said new data showed that digital money transactions tripled.
But the opposition Congress party held demonstrations in major cities to protest what they believe is a failed policy. It has ruined the lives of millions of hard-working Indians, the party's Vice President Rahul Gandhi said on Twitter.
The policy also affects people in neighboring Nepal. There, thousands of migrant workers held old currency notes that could not be exchanged before the date to do so passed.
Nepalese officials are currently seeking help from India to provide a way to exchange the nearly 55 million in Indian currency notes held by its citizens.
I'm Bryan Lynn.
1.black money 黑钱
“Political parties will only be curtailing their spending power by backing proposals to curb black money, ” he says.
2.speak against 抨击，发言反对
to speak against the statement
3.seek help 寻求帮助
When should someone seek help?
4.intend to do sth 意图/想要做某事
They intended to keep us out of their house.
5.He said the move was also intended to get rid of fake currency and reduce terror financing.
get rid of 摆脱，除掉
Get rid of the distractions around you.
Americans want to get rid of the deficit, they want smaller government, but they want bigger benefits from government.
6.It led to huge cash shortages for nearly two months.
lead to 导致，引起
Heart failure led to her father's death.
The street leads to the supermarket.
印度政府禁用大面额纸币已有一年 。印度政府的这项决定备受一些个人和组织的诟病 。
纳伦德拉 莫迪(Narendra Modi)就是2016年11月下令采取行动的那个人，他多次为自己的决定辩解 。此举实施后，印度500卢比和1000卢比面值的纸币都不再使用 。
莫迪表示禁用大面额纸币很有必要，可以打击腐败，直击“黑钱 。”黑钱这个词用来形容未经收税、未对外公布的财富 。他表示，此举也是为了除掉假币，减少恐怖主义集资 。
这项禁令影响了印度86%的货币，导致近2个月的巨大现金短缺 。上千万人在银行排着长队取现金，以满足日常需求 。
一些批评家表示，这项禁令大大危害了当时正处于健康发展的印度经济 。前任总理曼莫汉 辛格(Manmohan Singh)表示这项举动“欠考虑 。”
近日，辛格再次公开反对这项禁令，表示全世界没有哪个地方的民主要经受如此胁迫性的举动 。他表示，此举损害了印度中小型企业的利益 。
印度经济监测中心是一个总部位于孟买的智库 。据该智库估计，自从实施这项货币禁令以来，2017年的前四个月有近150万份工作岗位取消 。
财政部长亚特力在脸书上写道，印度对现金的依赖已经减少了近3.89万亿卢比 。他还表示，去年一年间，现金占国内生产总值(GDP)的比例已经由12%下降到9% 。
财政部表示，该项政策使得新增近560万纳税人 。此外，印度储备银行表示，新数据显示，电子货币交易增加了两倍 。
但反对派国会政党在多个大城市游行示威，表示他们认为这是一项失败的政策，毁掉了上千万辛勤工作的印度人民的生活，反对党副总统拉胡尔 甘地在推特上表示道 。
该政策还影响了邻国尼泊尔的人民 。尼泊尔有很多民工手上还有旧的纸币，在政策生效之前无法兑换 。