VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):美国经济学家获诺贝尔经济学奖
日期:2017-10-12 16:33

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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American Wins Nobel Prize in Economics
American economist Richard Thaler has won the 2017 Nobel Prize for Economics.
Thaler was recognized for his work as a behavioral economist. That means he studies the reasons behind the economic decisions people make.
Thaler received the prize partly for his research into why people often make irrational financial decisions. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced the $1.1 million prize on Monday.
Speaking of the prize money, Thaler told reporters in Chicago after the announcement, "I will spend it as irrationally as possible."
Things people do to make financial decisions
The award committee said Thaler explored "the consequences of limited rationality, social preferences, and lack of self-control." It said the American economist's work has shown how human qualities affect people's individual decisions and the movements of financial markets.
Thaler developed the theory of "mental accounting." It describes how people create separate accounts in their minds to try to simplify financial decision-making.
He described how this can lead to less rational financial decisions like saving for a vacation while paying high credit card interest.
His research, Bloomberg noted, showed that people often choose short-term pleasures, "which is why many people fail to plan and save for old age."
The Reuters said Thaler's research showed that such traits "as lack of self-control and fear of losing what you already have" can cause people to make bad short-term decisions.
One of those, Thaler noted, was keeping stock shares that have lost value or selling them too soon when they have gained value.
Thaler helped develop the "nudge" theory. It is the idea that small incentives can influence people to make good decisions. He said people should be permitted to make their own choices, but society "should actively try to guide individuals in the right direction."
Cass Sunstein and Thaler wrote about the idea in the 2008 book "Nudge."
The theory has been used by political candidates as they work to influence voters and government officials seeking to make changes in society.
Other areas also interested Thaler. He studied fairness. He found that people can accept increasing prices if the costs of many things are going up. But he found that they strongly disapprove of companies that raise prices simply because of high demand for one product.
Bloomberg called Thaler's Nobel Prize "a reward for 40 years of work spent studying human bias and temptation."
Thaler is considered one of the first behavioral economists. His field, once criticized, has grown in popularity among economists over the last 10 years.
The economist even briefly appeared in the 2010 movie, "The Big Short," about the global financial crisis.
Thaler is a professor of behavioral science and economics at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
The economics prize was created in 1968 in memory of Alfred Nobel after his death. Since then, 79 individuals have received the prize. The first woman winner was Elinor Ostrom in 2009.
American have received about half of the Nobel Prizes for economics.
I'm Mario Ritter.

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重点解析

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1.financial decisions 金融政策

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He has never flinched from harsh financial decisions.
在艰难的财政决策面前他从没有退缩过z|v~flrYH|e#j8y8A=

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2.lack of 缺乏

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I was amazed by their discourtesy and lack of professionalism.
他们的无礼和不专业让我震惊xA6)dB(#|K2@X^

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3.lead to 导致

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A lack of prudence may lead to financial problems.
不够谨慎可能会导致财政上出现问题0_vxIG1d)yPxA

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4.financial crisis 金融危机

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We must pull our company out of the financial crisis as soon as possible.
我们必须使公司尽早摆脱财政危机的困境s]idLadgMV!lr|U#%g@q

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5.He found that people can accept increasing prices if the costs of many things are going up.

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going up 上涨

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He noticed a new building going up near Whitaker Park.
他注意到惠特克公园附近正在兴建一幢新楼|1afHhSmGsyezgIp
Guns were blazing, flares going up and the sky was lit up all around.
炮火不断,信号弹此起彼伏,四周的天空都被照亮了2lFMpNXX;,

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6.Thaler received the prize partly for his research into why people often make irrational financial decisions.

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partly for 部分原因

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Partly for that reason, Europe's leaders do not have a great deal of leverage over Italy.
由于部分原因,欧洲各国的领导人并没有对意大利进行过分干涉=qCZN[q7oVw)L=d][
People read advertisements partly for information and partly because they are interesting.
人们读广告,部分是为了获取信息,部分是因为它们有趣2BOfuxfVt[0J#4^o

参考译文

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美国经济学家获诺贝尔经济学奖
美国经济学家理查德·塞勒(Richard Thaler)荣获2017年诺贝尔经济学奖GrFx7HzC5.iE]uw9V.J
作为一名行为经济学家,塞勒的心血得到了认可]=_-[eFo4^。他研究的是人们制定经济决策的原因,Mwre.4g^pErj|!8tTKg
塞勒获得诺贝尔奖,部分归功于他对人们为何做出不理智的金融决策的研究,5HYVm46bYfzIr。周一,瑞典皇家科学院宣布了获得110万美元奖金的经济学奖得主,5Azv73KZl
说到奖金的话题时,塞勒对芝加哥的记者表示,“我会尽可能不理性地花掉这笔钱=r+1p79H&jf2HikaJ@。”
诺贝尔奖项委员会表示,塞勒探究了“有限理性、社会偏好和缺乏自我控制的后果”|sU)0iaT]v_y&^S&nmb。该委员会表示,塞勒的研究揭示出人类特性如何影响个人决策和金融市场动向aZ+cqHyRsl

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美国经济学家荣获2017诺贝尔经济学奖.jpg
塞勒在经济学中发展出了“心理账户”的理论_vlWBir7sOxbzel;!。该理论描述了人们如何通过在脑海中构建不同的账户来简化金融决策No8z&pltV*6FeZ,,
塞勒指出这会导致你做出不理性的金融决策,例如,在支付高额的信用卡利息的同时为度假存钱1mXcji3vuW^C+,L.~&Z
彭博社指出,塞勒的研究揭示出人们会贪图一时之欢,这也是为何很多人没有计划、存钱养老|0O_gNI^Umyz2
路透社称,塞勒的研究揭露出一些特点,如“缺乏自控能力和害怕失去”等会引导人们做出糟糕的短期决定sZVujk97Mnh
塞勒指出,包括一直持有亏损的股份或在增值后迅速抛售股份-mlricAh^bY!0vh_
塞勒还发展出了一种“助推”理论uZqM&JWQ8qY4iMS~A。该理论指出,一些不起眼的鼓励措施会影响人们做出更理智的决定3Z#w;2KiGX。他说应该允许人们自己做决定,而社会“应积极引导人们走向正确的方向6()jZBZ@-b]aLrJA%。”
凯斯.桑斯坦和塞勒在2008年出版的《助推》中描述了该理论BR;#1EzUGF;
政治候选人利用该理论影响选民,而政府官员利用该理论来改变社会Ng46O@7N_Q1
塞勒对其他领域也感兴趣;~|_lZS;Qgo[C9。他还研究公平M_x#B#0+sS]p。他发现,如果许多东西的成本都在上涨,那么人们可以接受价格增长+6=d8I4[7Q,*。但人们会强烈反对某公司因产品的需求上涨而抬高物价J+;uaK#6-9Ga
彭博社称,塞勒获奖“是对其40年来研究人类偏好和诱惑的回报Ly8NNhyx,2~e。”
塞勒被誉为行为经济学家的鼻祖之一0YjPBGri9ZY8tc&!+d-(。他研究的领域曾不被人看好,不过近十年来受到经济学家们的青睐j8M^%UvA#Gy(WpCx_qa#
塞勒还在2010年的电影《大卖空》中露脸,该电影讲述的是全球金融危机~PfM6iOqxTvZYC
塞勒是芝加哥大学布斯商学院行为科学和经济学的教授pHz&mMK@lrzfgA8++U
1968年,为了纪念阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔创立了诺贝尔经济学奖b0WA;Xz,lH4|7[lzDHLc。此后,有79人获得该奖项BvDgB@9~TR_;W4_ZswW_。2009年埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆成为首位获此殊荣的女性Tppo*ZMi@A^0jMY.NT
在诺贝尔经济学奖的得主中,有一半为美国人^BtrSBRa[x
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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • globaladj. 全球性的,全世界的,球状的,全局的
  • mentaladj. 精神的,脑力的,精神错乱的 n. 精神病患者
  • limitedadj. 有限的,被限制的 动词limit的过去式和过去
  • creditn. 信用,荣誉,贷款,学分,赞扬,赊欠,贷方 (复)c
  • fairnessn. 公平,公正
  • irrationallyadv. 无理性地,不合理地
  • biasn. 偏见,斜纹 vt. 使偏心
  • affectvt. 影响,作用,感动
  • socialadj. 社会的,社交的 n. 社交聚会
  • permittedadj. 被允许的 v. 允许(permit的过去分词)