US Wants to Make it Easier for Americans to Stop Smoking
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) wants to make it easier for people to stop smoking.
It proposes to do this by lowering nicotine levels in cigarettes.
The FDA said lower nicotine levels will make it easier for people to smoke less, and to move toward stopping smoking all together.
Scott Gottlieb, the head of the FDA, is a doctor and cancer survivor.
Gottlieb said that most deaths and diseases from smoking are a result of an addiction to nicotine, a chemical found in tobacco plants. A smoking addiction means that people feel such a physical need to smoke that they have a very difficult time stopping. He said that nicotine is to blame for this dependency.
Gottlieb also called cigarettes the only legal product that
"when used as intended will kill half of all long-term users."
The FDA is taking public comments before deciding whether to put the proposed policy into effect.
The Altria Group sells Marlboro and other brands of cigarettes in the United States.
It said any change in nicotine levels must be done "based on science."
The company also said the FDA should watch out for "unintended consequences" – in other words, a result that was not thought of at the time an action was first proposed.
Jennifer Tidey is a professor of psychiatry at Brown University in Rhode Island. She and others did research on lowering nicotine levels. Their findings were published two years ago in The New England Journal of Medicine.
In their study, over 800 smokers were given cigarettes with different levels of nicotine over a six-week period.
Tidey said the results showed that lower-nicotine cigarettes helped people smoke less and even stop smoking.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says cigarette smoking is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced.
WHO said more than seven million people are killed from smoking each year worldwide. Yet it said many people do not know about the dangers of smoking.
"More than 6 million of those deaths are the result of direct tobacco use while around 890,000 are the result of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke," WHO said.
Thirteen members of the U.S. Senate wrote a letter to the FDA. The Senators, all members of the Democratic Party, expressed support for the proposed nicotine regulation. They asked that the rule be put into effect quickly.
The letter was put together by Senator Patty Murray from the western state of Washington.
The Reuters news agency reported that officials expect regulators in Europe to study similar calls to reduce nicotine levels.
I'm Jonathan Evans.
1.move toward 前往
We need passionate desire and clear directions as we move toward our dreams.
2.public health 公共卫生
Global cooperation to prevent the spread of pandemic disease can promote public health.
3.second-hand smoke 二手烟
Second-hand smoke harms everyone who is exposed to it.
4.in other words 换句话说
In other words, we have to build different corporate cultures and ways of working.
1.They asked that the rule be put into effect quickly.
put into effect 执行；实施
The provisions of the agreement are being put into effect.
These suggestions were adopted and put into effect.
2.The letter was put together by Senator Patty Murray from the western state of Washington.
put together 放在一起；组装
He took it apart brick by brick, and put it back together again.
We wouldn't have time to put together an agreement.
戈特利布表示，多数因吸烟导致的死亡或疾病都是对尼古丁上瘾引起的，尼古丁是烟草中含有的化学物质 。所谓烟瘾就是人体对烟有生理需求，烟瘾难断 。他还说，尼古丁是这种依赖性的罪魁祸首 。
詹妮弗·泰迪（Jennifer Tidey）是美国罗德岛州布朗大学的精神病学教授 。她和同事对降低尼古丁含量进行研究 。2年前，他们的研究结果发布在《新英格兰医学杂志》上 。
世卫组织表示，每年全球约700多万人因吸烟死亡 。然而，世卫组织的数据还指出，很多人还不了解吸烟的危害 。
美国参议院的13名议员向美国食品药品监督管理局递交了联名信 。这些议员都是民主党议员，他们表示支持尼古丁监管提案 。他们请求尽快实施该提案 。
这封联名信是华盛顿州联邦参议员帕蒂·默里（Patty Murray）汇总整理的 。