Program Pays Ugandan Farmers to Not Cut Trees
Researchers say a pilot program that paid Uganda landowners to not cut down trees, successfully reduced deforestation.
For the program, researchers from Northwestern University and Porticus, a Dutch organization, studied 121 villages over two years. In 60 villages they offered landowners $28 a year for every 10,000 square meters of forest they did not cut down.
To collect their data, the researchers used interviews, site inspections and satellite images to monitor forests around the villages.
Uganda had one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. It loses about 2.7 percent of their forest each year between 2005 and 2010.
The study, published in the journal "Science," found that villages in the payment program had saved 55,000 square meters of forestland more than other villages. In addition, there was not a rush to cut down trees after the program ended.
However, because the study was small compared to the size of the timber and charcoal markets, researchers were not able to see its effect on the markets. Without that information, they were not able to demonstrate that reduced deforestation in the study region didn't lead to increased deforestation elsewhere.
The researchers hope that this study will provide options for governments trying to meet their carbon emission targets under the 2015 Paris Agreement.
A carbon emission is a gas caused by the combustion of carbon. The gas is released into the atmosphere, and is considered harmful to the environment. Researchers say more carbon emissions contribute to global warming.
The Union of Concerned Scientists say deforestation causes about 10% of global carbon emissions. They say that not cutting down trees is one of the least expensive ways of capturing carbon. Trees absorb carbon and need it to grow. This helps keep the carbon levels in the air low.
Seema Jayachandran is one of the study leaders from Northwestern. She feels that the program will be most effective in partnership with others to address the reasons for deforestation.
One example could be helping people in cities get stoves, so they are not cooking with charcoal. Another idea is teaching farmers how to grow more food in less space, so they don't need to clear as much forest for land to grow food.
I'm Phil Dierking.
1.compared to 与...相比
Our work can be compared to a battle.
2.cut down 砍伐；减少
He cut down on coffee and cigarettes, and ate a balanced diet.
3.carbon emission 碳排放
Britain is the first country in the world to introduce a bill to control carbon emission.
4.global warming 全球变暖
The threat of global warming will eventually force the US to slow down its energy consumption.
1.In addition, there was not a rush to cut down trees after the program ended.
In addition 另外
You need money and time; in addition, you need diligence.
In addition, the respondent disclosed professional confidences to one of the patients.
2.The gas is released into the atmosphere, and is considered harmful to the environment.
be harmfulto 对...有害
Excessive smoking is harmful to one's health.
Radon is known to be harmful to humans in large quantities
为了进行试点项目，美国西北大学和荷兰Porticus组织的研究人员对121个村庄进行了为期2年多的考察 。他们每年向60个村庄的农民发放不砍伐森林补助（每1万平方米森林28美元） 。
乌干达是全球森林砍伐率最高的国家之一 。2005年到2010年间，乌干达每年约损失2.7%的森林面积 。
这项发表在《科学》杂志的研究发现，参与补助计划的村庄比其它村庄多保留5.5万平方米的林地 。此外，补助计划结束后，人们也没有乱砍滥伐 。
然而，因试点规模难以与木材和木炭市场的规模相匹敌，研究人员很难评估该项目对市场的影响 。没有确切的数据信息，他们无法证明试点区域的砍伐率下降不会导致其它地区的砍伐率上升 。
碳排放是指碳燃烧时产生的气体 。这种气体被释放到大气中对环境有害 。研究人员表示，碳排放过多会加剧全球变暖 。
美国忧思科学家联盟表示，森林砍伐会导致约10%的碳排放量 。他们表示，停止砍伐树木是控制二氧化碳含量的最低廉的方式之一 。树木靠吸收二氧化碳生长 。这有利于将空气中的碳含量维持在较低水平 。
Seema Jayachandran是西北大学的研究负责人之一 。她认为，该项目是与他人合力解决森林砍伐的最有效途径 。
比如，让城里人使用炉灶，避免使用木炭做饭 。另一个办法是教农民如何利用更少空间种植更多食物，避免他们毁林开荒 。