US President Orders Changes to H1-B Visa Program
U.S. President Donald Trump has signed an executive order directing federal agencies to propose changes to the H-1B program. The program is used to bring highly skilled foreign workers to the United States.
Trump signed the order called "Buy American, Hire American" during his Tuesday visit at an American company in the state of Wisconsin. During the presidential campaign, Trump had promised to change the country's immigration policies.
A senior Trump administration official says the order calls for "the strict enforcement of all laws governing entry into the United States of labor from abroad."
The order directs the departments of Labor, Justice, Homeland Security and State to take action against fraud and abuse in the immigration system to protect American workers. It also directs the departments to propose reforms to ensure that H-1B visas are given only to the most-skilled or highest-paid applicants.
The H-1B visa program is designed for foreigners to work for American companies in jobs that usually require higher education -- including scientists, engineers or computer programmers. The government uses a lottery system to give 65,000 visas every year. It gives another 20,000 visas to graduate student workers.
The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services says the number of applications for H-1B visas fell to 199,000 this year from 236,000 in 2016.
American companies say they use the visas to recruit highly skilled workers. A majority of the H-1B visas, however, are given to overseas companies that then send workers to American companies.
Some critics say those foreign companies give the visas to people to perform lower-level information technology, or IT, jobs. Critics also say the lottery system works in the favor of the large firms that submit a large number of applications.
A Trump administration official says the way the system now works, foreign workers are able to come to the United States and replace American workers because the foreign workers accept lower wages than Americans. The official says this violates "the principle of the program." The administration has said large American technology companies have been using the program to hire large numbers of foreign workers, lowering wages for Americans.
The Reuters news agency examined U.S. Labor Department records and found that more than 15 percent of Facebook's employees in the United States in 2016 used a temporary work visa.
Employers including Walt Disney World and the University of California in San Francisco have replaced American technology workers with H-1B visa holders. Some of the American workers were forced to train the foreign workers who replaced them.
1.foreign workers 外籍员工
I understand Singaporeans 'concerns about taking in so many foreign workers and immigrants.
2.graduate student 研究生
Have you determined to become a graduate student?
3.be designed for 专为...而设计
This gun is designed for one purpose — it's basically to kill people
4.immigration policies 移民政策
America also used to have one of the most business-friendly immigration policies.
1.Critics also say the lottery system works in the favor of the large firms that submit a large number of applications.
in the favor of 有利于；赞成
Today's election will skew the results in favor of the northern end of the county.
The jury voted 8-to-4 in favor of acquittal.
2.The order directs the departments of Labor, Justice, Homeland Security and State to take action against fraud and abuse in the immigration system to protect American workers.
take action 采取行动
We had to take action to protect the proprietary technology.
We must take action to deal with the problem before it spreads to other areas.
美国总统特朗普（Donald Trump）签署了一项行政令，要求联邦政府部门对现行H-1B签证政策提出修改意见 。该签证政策旨在吸引高技能外籍劳工 。
周二，特朗普访问威斯康星州的一家美国企业时签署了这一名为“购买美国货，雇佣美国人”的行政命令 。特朗普在总统竞选期间曾承诺要修改美国移民政策 。
行政令还要求美国劳工部、司法部、国土安全部和国务院采取行动打击移民体系中欺诈和滥用的行为，保护美国工人权益 。该命令还指示各部门提出改革意见，确保将H-1B签证发放给具有专业技能或高薪申请者 。
H-1B签证专为那些在美国企业工作的接受过高等教育的外籍员工发放，包括科学家、工程师或计算机程序员 。每年政府通过抽签发放的签证达6.5万张 。另外，政府还为研究生发放了2万张签证 。
美国企业表示，他们用这种签证吸引具有专业技能的员工 。不过大多数H-1B签证都被发放给海外公司，这些公司再将员工派遣到美国企业 。
评论员认为，外国公司将签证发放给执行较低水平的IT岗位人员 。评论家还指出，抽签制更有利于那些申请者众多的大型企业 。
特朗普政府的官员指出，现行的抽签制度使外籍劳工更容易入境美国，取代美国工人，因为他们更愿意接受低薪 。他还表示，这违反了“签证程序的原则 。”政府曾指出，大多美国科技公司利用这一点大量雇佣外籍劳工，降低美国人的工资水平 。
旧金山的迪士尼和加州大学转而雇佣持有H-1B签证的人员而非美国技术人员 。一些美国工人甚至被迫培训那些取代他们的外籍劳工 。