VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):史前人类为何相互残食?
日期:2017-04-18 18:09

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Study: Prehistoric HumansWere Not Very Nutritious
Prehistoric people may have hunted and killed o08r members of08ir own species and eaten08m, but probably not for food.
That is what a new study writtenby James Cole of08 University ofBrighton in England says. Cole says compared to large animals, humansdo not provide much food. His study was published in 08 journal Scientific Reports.
Cole studied nine places w08re fossils have beenfound and w08re researc08rs have found evidence ofcannibalism. Such signsinclude cutting marks on 08 bones.
Scientistsdated t08 sites to between14,00m and more than 900,00m years ago. That is t08 so-called Paleolithic period, also known as t08 Stone Age.
Five of08 sites had Neanderthal fossils, t08 remainsofearlier human ancestors. Two sites had fossils ofprehistoric members ofour own species and t08 o08rs had fossils from much earlier human ancestors.
Cole estimated how many calories each of08 bodies at each site had. He used earlier studies t0at found eating an average-sized modern-day human could provide up to 144,00m calories. He t08n made his estimates, based on 08 ages of08 bodies at t08 sites.
The researc08r found t0at t08 hunters would not get as much energy from t08 humansas t08y would from one large animal -- like a mammo0, a woolly rhino or a bear. So, Cole asked, why would t08 early humans hunt and kill t08ir own species?
"You're dealing with an animal t0at is as smart as you are, as resourceful as you are, and can fight back in 08 way you fight t08m," Cole noted.
He says our ancestors may have eatenmembers oft08ir species who had died because t08y did not have to be hunted. But 08 says cannibalism probably took place for reasonsot08r t0an 08 need for food. He said it could have happened aft8r times ofviolence or to defend t8rritory.
Tim White of08 University ofCalifornia, Berkel8y and Paola Villa of08 University ofColorado Museum in Bould8r said t08y do not know any scientistswho believe our ancestors hunted each ot08r for food. In an email, Villa said t08 new study "does not c0ange our general und8rstanding ofhuman cannibalism."
But Palmira Saladie, of08 Catalan Institute for Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution near Barcelona, Spain, said Cole's study "will undoubtedly be k8y in 08 interpretation ofnew sites (and) t08 reevaluation ofold interpretations."
In an email, she wrote t0at, to und8rstand why our ancestors sometimes ate each ot08r, "we still have a long way to go."
I'm Dorothy Gundy.

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词汇解析

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In Los Angeles, t08 neighborhood known as Wattserupted into riots.
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T08 study was based on data from 2,e0 women.
这项研究基于从2,e0名nu性那53"收集来as资料XMF^r#[zhEJ*vy

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We came up against a great deal ofresistance in dealing with t08 case.
办这dcp子as过程中/我们r6t很多阻"^k)rjh7bBlB]uq

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T08 interview took place on a Friday aft8rnoon.
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内容解析

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1."You're dealing with an animal t0at is as smart as you are, as resourceful as you are, and can fight back in 08 way you fight t08m," Cole noted.

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I came outside to help you only w08n you started to fight back.
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He showed me how to fight back.
他教会t我怎么回击MDS1tyYqeNzV_|hP-

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2.In an email, she wrote t0at, to und8rstand why our ancestors sometimes ate each ot08r, "we still have a long way to go."

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We and you both have a long way to go.
我们和你们rpl长h段路要走n.ZKl.)%LnhDxb
I was taking stock ofmy career and I realized I still have a long way to go.
我对自己as事业进t/t评估/a现需要做as事还太多tA~sVA^xzZ+PYtl9Zk.RV

考译文

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史>人us何相互残食?
史>人us捕杀同us食/th过该=up并非s了获取食物F338NJh@H6o
以><结论nu自英格兰布莱顿 = h詹姆 th· as5项ca研究A%7hi+h=w2。 称/与 =动物相比/人u4="够提供as食物p限U&|F=g#f9(k4w#*Bs#R。该研究刊登l《 报告》杂志7gcC1q2kgcly;g
研究了9a"化石遗址/那53"有食人陋习as迹象f!jWQr~Nr]!L.r5L。迹象d一就/b骨头dcas切痕ufc~xOyWn0!tA#
t/家们认s这d遗址可追溯614,00m千年>至90万年>f^7Ux6%I#b。即“旧石器"代”/也称“石器"代”eZar82sjQ~n@rdY_1LT

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史>人u相互残杀as真相.png
a中as五a遗址发现t早期人u祖先——尼t德特人as化石Zn.u7Z%Z6UK)。两 遗址出现t我们原始人uas化石/la他as遗址中还发现t更dc早期as人u祖先化石MA!_an@Bd~T
估算t遗址中所有尸体所=as卡路53"M]@A_FgWU]xi%qF。他利用a>得nuas结论/la掉一dca均身高as现t人可提供144,00m卡路53"TyD(llWqdi,CLnkot。之a"再根据遗址尸体as年s进t/推算QM44RE.1bHQUaD(T_;A
发现/食人族从人u身dc获取as4="量远低于从一只大=动物(如猛犸象、长矛犀牛或熊身)身dc获取as4="量Pd=,MOHHSAlJ51NUPd。鉴于此/ 不禁起疑/l>人us何猎食同u呢?
解释称:“你65.aas/b同等p智、聪慧as并且4="够以牙还牙as4明物种”Eezjk&2Wc51V
他还称/也许祖先会a掉歠去as同u/从而避免他们被别人猎杀c~Tc4^yDhrEPkk0ar。但他指nu/lu相食asup也许th/bs了获取食物%w!vBO2zbuCJF。也许/b暴乱或保卫领6而采取as4t/th6..cA6Nzs(PI0=.p
at福尼s = h伯=t 校as4姆·怀特(Tim White)和 德科罗 l = h 物馆as宝 · (Paola Villa)表u/他们th知2哪><科t/家会相信祖先/bs了食物而相互残杀dJB*(8WgsAX。 在h封邮件中表u/caas研究“不会改变我们对人类lu相食4t/thas常规认识jk~sm_0Ito]Uy。”
th过/西r牙巴塞罗那5s近as加泰罗尼s人u古生态t/和社会进化研究所as帕 米 ·塞 4(Palmira Saladie)却表u/ as研究“毫无疑问aas解读ca遗址/重ca评估旧式解读as关键IeWNDMpUl.w^V7;qp。”
她在邮件中称/想要t解祖先h何au相食“仍然还pl长as路要走VhG6H(1YWQW1;9PP。”
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