Avoid Ineffective Study Methods
Imagine you have a test in school. It could be for a class in history or mathematics. Even worse, you could have an English test. How should you prepare for this terrible event? What can you do before the big day to help you do better?
Should you reread your history or math books? What about underlining important words or sentences?
If you are like many students, you probably use both rereading and underlining. But are these truly the best methods?
Today, on our Education Report, we will explore effective and ineffective ways to study for tests. You might learn that some study habits you used in the past might not be the best methods.
Are rereading and highlighting effective?
Rereading and highlighting are common strategies that you will see in schools around the world.
Students look at information they have already read in an effort to remember what is important.
Students often combine rereading with highlighting. They underline important information in what they read with a writing instrument such as a marker.
American Mary Pyc is a cognitive scientist. She studies the human mind and its processes.
Pyc says that both rereading and highlighting are ineffective study tools. While better than not studying at all, she believes they are not as useful as other habits.
"For example, with rereading, it's maybe not as effective because you are not trying to actively retrieve the information. You are not seeing "what do I actually know about what I read?" With rereading what is going to happen is that it is going to feel like you already know the information because you've already read it. So, you have this sense of fluency that is leading you to think "Ok, yes, I know the information."
The problem with highlighting, Pyc says, is that students have a false sense of understanding - similar to when they reread information. Also, there is a second problem that comes with highlighting.
"Students aren't always aware of what the most important information is. So it's possible that they are maybe highlighting details that aren't as important as the higher level concepts."
What can you do?
So what should you do if rereading and highlighting are not the best ways to study for a test?
One idea is to test yourself. We have discussed self-testing strategies in other education stories. Simple flashcards and practice exams can help when you want to make sure that you have learned something.
Another strategy is what education experts have called "spaced practice." This means to practice remembering the new information over time, instead of doing everything all at once. We will discuss spaced practice in a future Education Tips story.
Regardless of which strategy you chose, you should know that effective learning takes time and it takes effort.
The next time you have a test coming, try to plan for the big day so that you can give yourself time to engage in different study habits. And remember, rereading and highlighting are better than not studying at all, but there are better methods out there!
I'm John Russell.
1.Even worse 更糟糕的是
Her mother, poor soul, came to an even worse end.
2.take time 花费时间
We will restore her to health but it may take time.
3.Regardless of 不管
Regardless of whether he is right or wrong, we have to abide by his decisions.
4.over time 随着时间...；超时
Ground rents are likely to escalate over time.
1.Students look at information they have already read in an effort to remember what is important.
in an effort to 企图；试图想要
I spent much of my time bundled up in sweaters in an effort to keep warm.
Penny tended to work through her lunch hour in an effort to keep up with her work.
2.This means to practice remembering the new information over time, instead of doing everything all at once.
at once 立刻；同时
I have to go, I really must, at once.
I dreamed up a plan to solve both problems at once.
想象一下，你需要参加一场学校的考试 。可能是历史考试也可能是数学考试 。更可怕的是，可能还有一场英语考试 。你会如何应付这种糟糕的状况呢？如何备考才能更好地在考场发挥呢？
今天，我们将通过教育报告探索备考的有效及无效方法 。也许你会发现曾经使用的一些学习方式并不是最佳方法 。
一般，学生会将重读和划重点的方式结合起来 。阅读时，他们会用马克笔等工具划出关键知识点 。
玛丽·派克（Mary Pyc）是美国认知心理学家 。她主要研究人类的思维及其过程 。
派克表示，重读和划重点都是无效的学习方法 。虽比压根不学习好，但没有其他的学习方法高效 。
“例如，重读的效率低是因为你并非在积极、努力地重获信息，没有领会‘对于所阅读的内容究竟了解了多少’ 。只是你在重读的过程中会觉得已经了解这些内容，因为你已经读过了 。所以，这种流利感会让你觉得‘嗯，对，我掌握了这些知识 。’
派克指出，划重点的弊端导致学生对理解产生了错觉，与重读信息的过程类似 。划重点还有一个问题 。
“学生并不是总是了解最重要的信息 。因此，他们所标注的细节可能没有更高层次的概念重要 。”
自我测试不失为一种方法 。我们已经在其他教育报道中讨论过自我测试的策略 。如果你想检验自己学到一些知识，简单的抽认卡和模拟考试会有所帮助 。
教育专家们还有一种“间隔练习”法 。就是逐日练习，不断记忆新信息，而不是一次性记住所有信息 。未来，我们会在教育技巧报道中讨论“间隔练习” 。