Will Eating Less Help You Live Longer?
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
If you want to slow aging, you want might to eat less. Researchers in the United States say eating less can slow the aging process of cells in the body.
This finding is good news – if you are a mouse. The researchers studied mice, not people.
John Price is a biochemistry professor at Brigham Young University in the U.S. state of Utah.
He and other researchers studied two groups of mice. One group was able to eat as much as it wanted. The researchers restricted what the other animals in the other group ate. Their diet had 35 percent fewer calories than the first group of mice.
Price says the mice with the diet restrictions were "more energetic and suffered fewer diseases." They were not just living longer, they seemed to stay younger for a longer period of time.
Price says that when you restrict calories (in mice), there is a direct increase in lifespan – the average age of the animal. He and his team found that calorie "restriction caused real biochemical changes that slowed down the rate of aging."
The researchers found that fewer calories slow down a natural mechanism in cells called ribosomes. Price explains that ribosomes are responsible for making important proteins in the cells. But with fewer calories, they slow down. This gives the cells more time to repair themselves.
The University of Utah researchers say ribosomes use from 10 to 20 percent of the cell's energy to make those proteins.
In a press release on the study, Price wrote that "because of this, it is impractical to destroy an entire ribosome" when it starts to break down.
However, "repairing individual parts of the ribosome on a regular basis enables ribosomes to continue producing high quality proteins for longer than they would otherwise. This top quality production, in turn, keeps cells and the entire body functioning well."
Price used automobiles to explain how ribosomes repair themselves. He said that a "ribosome is a very complex machine," like a car.
Ribosomes, likes cars, need "maintenance to replace the parts that wear out the fastest. When tires wear out," he explained, "you don't throw the whole car away and buy" a new one. It costs less to replace the old tires.
Earlier studies have suggested a link between calorie restrictions and slowed aging. However, this is first to show how the ribosomes can influence aging.
Price noted calorie restriction as a way to slow aging has not been tested in humans. But he adds that the main finding for people is the "the importance of taking care of our bodies."
"Food," he said, "isn't just material to be burned -- it's a signal that tells our body and cells how to respond."
Price said the findings help to explain how exactly our bodies age. And this may "help us make more educated decisions about what we eat."
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.slow aging 延缓衰老
How might caloric restriction slow aging?
2.taking care of 照顾；照料
It was felt that she was perfectly capable of taking care of herself.
3.wear out 磨损
The past few days had really worn him out.
4.slow down 减速
The car slowed down as they passed Customs.
1.This top quality production, in turn, keeps cells and the entire body functioning well."
in turn 反过来；轮流
In the city squares the neon lights flashed in turn.
There were cheers for each of the women as they spoke in turn.
2.Because of this, it is impractical to destroy an entire ribosome" when it starts to break down.
break down 分解；故障
Talks with business leaders broke down last night.
The report breaks down the results region by region.
如果想要延缓衰老，你可能需要少吃一点 。美国的研究人员称，少吃能够延缓体内细胞的衰老速度 。
该实验成果在小白鼠的身上十分显著 。研究人员的试验对象不是人类而是小白鼠 。
约翰·普赖斯（John Price）是美国犹他州杨伯翰大学生物化学系教授 。
他和其他研究人员研究了两组小白鼠 。第一组小白鼠尽可能多吃 。而另一组小白鼠进行饮食限制 。他们的饮食热量比第一组小白鼠减少35% 。
普赖斯表示，接受饮食限制的小白鼠“精力更旺盛，很少生病 。”他们不只寿命延长，似乎还延迟了衰老 。
普赖斯说，当你限制其摄入的卡路里时，他们的预期寿命-动物的平均年龄明显延长 。普赖斯和团队发现，“限制卡路里摄入真的会出现延缓衰老速度的生理变化 。”
研究人员发现，较少的卡路里减慢了细胞内核糖体的自然机制 。普赖斯表示，核糖体负责在细胞中合成蛋白质 。但是卡路里越少，他们工作的速度越慢 。细胞得到了更多自我修复的时间 。
然而，“定期修复核糖体的单个部分，核糖体才能继续生产高质量蛋白质的有效期更长 。这种高质量的蛋白质反过来会维护细胞和人体的运转良好 。
普赖斯用汽车来说明核糖体的自我修复机制 。他进一步解释，“就像汽车一样，核糖体也是一个非常复杂的机器” 。
像汽车一样，核糖体也需要“维护更换磨损最快的部件 。”他解释说，“轮胎磨损时，你不用扔掉整辆车再去买辆新的 。要知道，更换轮胎的成本更低一些 。”
先前的研究指出，限制卡路里摄入和延缓衰老之间存在联系 。然而，该研究首次解释出核糖体是如何延缓衰老的 。
普赖斯强调，这种通过限制卡路里摄入以延缓衰老的测试尚未在人体中进行试验 。但他表示，对于人类来说，关键是了解“照料身体的重要性 。
普赖斯说，该结果有助于帮我们了解身体的实际年龄 。“进一步帮助我们在饮食上做出更明智的选择” 。