VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):全球变暖——牛类难逃其责
日期:2017-02-26 19:25

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Scientists in Mexico say they may have found a way to cut production of methane, a gas linked to rising temperatures on the Earth's surface.
The scientists say their method may help reduce the methane released by cows, one of the main producers of the gas.
When talking about global warming, many people think of carbon dioxide, another heat-trapping gas. Studies have shown that large amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reflect heat back to earth, causing climate changes.
Methane is an even more powerful heat-trapping gas. Cows are known to produce high levels of methane when they eat and process food. Farm animals are responsible for 44 percent of all human-caused methane, according to the Reuters news service.
Researchers at the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico are studying how a cow's diet affects the production of methane. The researchers are using a specially designed machine to measure the effect.
Stefanny Hernandez is an assistant researcher at the university. She told VOA that, "approximately 95 percent of methane that is emitted by cattle is from breathing."
The scientists use the machine to try to capture the animal's breathing to examine the methane released, she explained.
Most of the gas is released when cows belch. The digestive bacteria in a cow's stomach causes the animal to expel the gas through its mouth.
There are an estimated 1.3 to 1.5 billion cows in the world. Each animal releases as much as 120 kilograms of methane per year.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports that, when measured in pounds, the effect of methane on climate change is more than 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period.
In addition, a 2006 United Nations report found that raising cattle produces more greenhouse gases than cars and trucks combined. This includes not just gases released by the cattle, but the effect of related activities, such as clearing forests to raise the animals.
Octavio Castelán is the head of the university's cattle and environment laboratory. He told VOA, "If we can reduce methane emissions, then we can rapidly reduce the effect on climate change."
As it is difficult to capture the gas released by cows for use as energy, one way to lessen its release is to change their diet.
Scientists in some countries are looking for ways to decrease cow methane. But, Castelán explained, while they are trying different plants and chemical compounds, those products would be too costly and difficult to bring to Mexico.
The Mexican researchers have found two animal food sources offering promising results: leaves from the leucaena tree and the flowers of the cosmos plant. Both plants grow in warm climates.
The researchers found that cows who ate grass mixed with the leucaena leaves belched about 36 percent less methane than a diet of grass alone. The cosmos flower reduced these emissions by 26 percent when mixed with the animal's feed.
In addition, the two plants do not have a harmful effect on milk and meat production. In fact, the researchers found that leuceana leaves improve the quality of cow milk. This can give Mexican farmers more reason to grow the plants and change their cattle's diet.
I'm Alice Bryant.

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词汇解析

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1.methane 甲烷

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What do we know about methane?
关于甲烷我们知道什么?

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2.trap 吸收,留住

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Wool traps your body heat, keeping the chill at bay.
羊毛织物能留住你的身体热量,阻挡寒气3H;Z#3q^HcG]mf|GV!Jb

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3.measure 估量,测试

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I continued to measure his progress against the charts in the doctor's office.
我继续根据医生办公室里的图表来估量他的进展bzi*JFH*.(ikm

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4.belch 打嗝

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Garland covered his mouth with his hand and belched discreetly.
加兰用手捂住嘴,小心翼翼地打了个嗝[P[ym(y|~k

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内容解析

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1.When talking about global warming, many people think of carbon dioxide, another heat-trapping gas.

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think of 想到

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I can't think of a better place for our party.
我想不出一个更好的聚会的地方~jCA3RRRgYU

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I can't think of the word for “love” in French.
我想不起法语的“爱”是怎么说的了rivcs3u9OZs

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2.Farm animals are responsible for 44 percent of all human-caused methane, according to the Reuters news service.

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be responsible for... 对……有责任,对……负责

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He should be responsible for that.
他应该对此事负有责任G=ZszLkuT;j6,%X)3B!D

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We usually design the label ourselves. You know we should be responsible for the brand labels of our goods.
恐怕不行,我们通常自己设计标签,你知道我们必须为我们自己品牌的商标负责6;Tn=**ou6;BP7F

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参考译文

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墨西哥有科学家表示他们可能发现了一种减少温室气体甲烷产生的方法f;5t|Hi(I1PVpK
这些科学家说,他们的方法可能助力减少牛类排放的甲烷,而牛类是甲烷的主要产生来源Tp9k%^q[mMP*|w
一提到全球变暖,很多人都会想到二氧化碳(另一种吸收热量的气体)5Yk~xwW75GKP@[FSy-;。有研究表明,大气中大量的二氧化碳会将热量反射回地球,引起地球气候变化Q+&L09;BARLyPWdNVm2W
甲烷是比二氧化碳吸热性更强的气体gswjdH(rZ)xN。众所周知,当牛类食用并消化食物的时候,会产生高浓度的甲烷wJ;Z+UR7^;y3aehv。家畜产生的甲烷量是人类产生甲烷总量的44%,据路透社报道D=LeX[4d7P1L)-RksxJL
墨西哥国立自治大学的研究人员正在研究牛类的饮食会对甲烷的产生有何种影响xU56cZa~l1。他们使用了一种特殊设计的机器来测试这种影响I_V8YT]Byo2EGD&vg+p[

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赫尔南德斯是该大学的助理研究员U^Av6w+shu。她告诉VOA的记者,“牛类排放的甲烷中,几乎95%来自呼吸ix6+eO6Z9*BYa9^。”
科学家使用这种机器来试图捕捉牛类的呼吸情况,以检测其排放的甲烷,赫尔南德斯说GIeL~DZCY;
它们打嗝的时候会排放甲烷4IyKP3iHnBVYRJsBleU。牛类胃部的硝化细菌会引起牛类通过打嗝从口腔释放甲烷气体][%Zc(%P_9c
据估计,全球共有13亿-15亿只牛&QpOHLTvLS.36q。每只牛每年会排放出120千克的甲烷气体F@ZesT2&1[!ZH
据美国环境保护署(EPA, Environmental Protection Agency)报道,若以英镑计算,则在100年的时间内,甲烷对气候变化的影响是二氧化碳的25倍PB[vLqASUNq;EI;e01
此外,联合国2006年的一则报道发现,养牛所产生的温室气体比汽车和卡车合在一起还要多@OGXJ!hr(KuzyNm。这一数据不仅包含牛类本身释放的气体,还包含相应活动所产生的影响,比如退林还牧M-+[%oyAxsBEy
奥克塔维奥是该校牛类和环境实验室的负责人+)IhVM+h0J_-^ixBGd。他告诉VOA的记者,“如果我们能减少甲烷的排放量,那么我们就能迅速减少气候变化的影响|PR2I1kRl]y。”
由于很难捕捉到牛类释放甲烷所对应的能量,所以,一种减少牛类甲烷排放量的方法就是改变他们的饮食ymjaMZ0DFg)RkjTR
一些国家的科学家们正在寻找减少牛类甲烷排放量的方法NDxK,wMS&Sh+2GPb!~。但是奥克塔维奥解释道,虽然他们也在尝试不同的植物和化学合成物,但是这些产品成本太高,也很难带到墨西哥去EXxe1V[HH#FnyG
墨西哥的研究人员发现,有2种动物食用品可能会带来有前景的结果:银合欢树的叶子和大波斯菊的花UoHTd9[,uT3x]oR1。这两种植物都生长在气候暖和的地方pUDnhtPVBYo@fZb,x[=
研究人员发现,当牛类吃了掺有银合欢树叶子的草类后,打嗝时产生的甲烷量比单纯吃草类减少了36%zQ-jIcT,wU_88!hp。而掺有大波斯菊的草则能让牛类的甲烷排放量减少26%zGcunL*hsv7XTIawdR
除此之外,这两种植物对牛类奶量和肉质并无有害影响eQZX8e&cI0z8JXwQj。实际上,研究人员发现,银合欢树的叶子反而能提升牛奶的品质YEW((I%JZa[2Tn]%2n。这就给了墨西哥农民们更多的理由来种植这两种植物,并改变牛类饮食-I5._(VBNDU
Alice Bryant为您播报wa26wHY&iYu-p=HU,Z

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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