VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):心脏肌肉再生燃起希望之火
日期:2017-01-26 07:59

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Regrowth of Heart Muscle May Be Possible
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
It may seem like a moment in a science fiction movie. In a fierce battle, a creature loses an arm but, then, grows another one to take its place.
However, this is not science fiction. It is scientific fact. Some fish and amphibians, such as salamanders, can regrow lost limbs and organs.
As mammals evolved they lost the ability to regrow, or regenerate, parts of their body. However, experiments show that it may be possible to regain that ability.
Tropical freshwater zebrafish are popular pets. They are also popular as lab animals. Their embryos are clear, or translucent. They can regrow damaged fins, skin and hearts. Zebrafish are also genetically similar to humans.
In 2013, the website Sci-News reported that researchers had found that 70 per cent of "protein-coding human genes" are related to genes found in the zebrafish. The report also said that researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Britain also found that 84 per cent of genes known to be connected to human disease have a zebrafish counterpart.
These researchers published their findings in the scientific journal Nature. Sanger is a non-profit British genomics and genetics research institute.
So, it is no surprise that scientists at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania are using tiny zebrafish to regenerate severely damaged mouse hearts.
Scientist Wang Yadong is one of the Pittsburg researchers. He and his team are studying the ability of zebrafish to regenerate limbs and organs. Wang says you can cut away about 20 per cent of the zebrafish heart and it will regenerate. He add that same process may be able to help humans.
"So that amazing ability make(s) us think it's possible to borrow some of that repair regeneration mechanism and use that to help us to regenerate our heart."
Scientists injected an "extracellular matrix," or ECM, from the heart of a zebrafish into a severely damaged mouse heart.
In biology, an extracellular matrix is a substance produced and released by cells that gives structural and biochemical support to surrounding cells. Think of ECM as cellular stuff that gives room and board to surrounding cells.
So, what did the researchers find?
They found that the heart muscle regenerated in days. They found something else. The healing was even faster when the ECM was taken from zebrafish that was itself in the process of re-growing damaged tissue.
Wang adds that if you had to choose between the two matrices, the "healing matrix" is more powerful of the two.
"Between the two, the healing matrix from the zebrafish heart is even more potent than the normal one."
A molecule called neuregulin 1 seems to play a major role in causing the regeneration to happen.
"We did see the zebrafish heart has more neuregulin 1 than the mouse heart. The healing zebrafish heart has even more than the normal. So, it does indicate that neuregulin probably plays a role but we have to do more study on that."
The next step will be to test the regenerative abilities of zebrafish ECM on larger mammals.
I'm Anna Matteo.

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词汇解析

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1.heart muscle 心脏肌肉

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Destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle.
由于对心脏肌肉的血液供应阻塞而导致心脏组织的破坏Jome6#EhZ8Aa*!.-9!D[

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2.fiction movie 科幻片

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Gene and Beth are watching a science fiction movie about aliens.
吉恩和贝思正在看一部有关外星人的科幻片75E8cjdg42_w3T3

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3.lab animals 实验动物

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So far, the research has focused on humans with Alzheimer's and lab animals.
迄今为止,研究主要集中于患老年痴呆症的人和实验室里的动物%^03-UstUbA1|Oh[Ci9

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4.cut away 切掉

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We cut away the dead branches from the trees.
我们砍掉了树上的枯枝VwNg2p=^tp7t(~e6+

内容解析

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1.A molecule called neuregulin 1 seems to play a major role in causing the regeneration to happen.

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play a major role in 扮演重要角色

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Accountants play a major role in this measurement process by qualifying data.
会计在计量过程中的主要作用是将数据量化Ua;RrlGo+4Ugsk
The UN would play a major role in monitoring a ceasefire.
联合国在监督停火方面会发挥重要作用b&6WMSt]Np(jPMFr*vU

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2.The report also said that researchers at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Britain also found that 84 per cent of genes known to be connected to human disease have a zebrafish counterpart.

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connected to 金融犯罪

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These appliances should not be connected to power supplies.
这些家用电器不应该接通电源-V[V3Y1-Syva
The dispute is not directly connected to the negotiations.
这一争端与谈判没有直接联系uHa5QDHbj73BL[

参考译文

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心脏肌肉再生燃起希望之火
这里是VOA慢速英语健康生活报道Nf2=1R!3C|he=MLdli
这样的场景或许只在科幻电影中出现6NHHAQ[e9]yU0oyBhL。某生物经过一场激烈的战斗后失去一只手臂,之后又长出来一条新手臂YpAuFe50l1-;m
不过,这不再是科幻小说中的场景,这已经成为科学事实Y,!61&R8lwm。某些鱼类和蝾螈类两栖动物可重新长出新的肢体和器官X]!33+FR_q9BOp~
哺乳动物因进化失去了身体部位的再生能力#V8KTVwcofCyH*+o(;ab。然而,实验表明它们可能重新恢复这种能力PUy1USr-HnHx4

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心脏肌肉再生燃起希望之火.jpg
作为宠物,热带淡水斑马鱼十分受欢迎PjvCWVM,pr0#p%J8。它们在实验领域也备受青睐hT&m.*j_,b。它们的胚胎为透明或半透明状态,它们可以使受损的鳍、皮肤和心脏再生QBcCf+%,3Mf+X;M1D(5S。另外,斑马鱼的基因与人类相似=ttcsYm5uH)
2013年,《科技新闻》网站报道称,研究人员发现,人类70%的蛋白编码基因与斑马鱼的基因相关#W,=]~%VCUBBuV。该报道还指出,英国韦尔科姆基金会桑格研究所的研究人员发现,人类疾病相关基因中有84%可以在斑马鱼中找到对应基因8AzhvI;QlP&QAuceA|Vu|5!K3pd4b]kUbdH
研究人员将研究结果刊登在《自然》杂志上P&]0O0OF_C,XKQPZMH。桑格研究所是英国一家非营利性的基因学和遗传学研究所@9^1^HR10Un&^Frn
因此,宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡大学的科学家开始利用小斑马鱼来再生受损严重的老鼠心脏ga(BK,@1C2b9]7!
王亚东是匹兹堡大学的研究人员之一RGu_ACDE1rX7a*]zA]。他与团队正在研究斑马鱼再生肢体和器官的能力qMg3lR-7lSN=g*g。王亚东表示,斑马鱼约20%心脏被切掉后会再生eD+phcvgX9。他补充说,这种修复过程或许能帮助人类ToM3+()Vl4YWQ^r4D9
他指出,“这一神奇能力不禁让人联想到,我们可以利用其中一些修复再生机制实现人类心脏再生jfq&K1=q4UZTTFX.PaR|。”
科学家将斑马鱼心脏的一种“细胞外基质”注入受损严重的老鼠心脏;dHjBf.wYW
在生物学中,细胞外基质是细胞产生和释放的一种物质,能够向周围细胞提供结构和生化支持Gz@x11S]C2-#-dM。人们把细胞外基质视为可以给周围细胞提供“食宿”的细胞原料ut57-IY|_IGw
研究人员发现了什么?
他们发现老鼠心脏肌肉在几天内能够再生+L.A@^X[RNwqx&20s。他们还发现,自身处于受损组织再生过程的斑马鱼的细胞外基质的愈合作用更明显]xtd7=k0aTr
王亚东补充说,如果二者选其一的话,“愈合中的基质”更加强大-^eHm;QA,)doE%F!L~
他说,“在两种基质中,正在愈合中的斑马鱼心脏基质比常规情况下愈合效力更佳X-Ch+D!o.q2UPU2KU。”
一种名为“神经调节蛋白1”的分子在再生过程中发挥了重要作用K%A2TWH5Tt]v
王亚东表示,“在斑马鱼心脏中确实发现了比老鼠心脏更多的“神经调节蛋白1”Igo#B.Dd@o-_&St。而愈合中的斑马鱼心脏比正常情况含有更多“神经调节蛋白1”3z.kIxu2sx5ew。显而易见,这种神经调节蛋白可能发挥了作用,但是我们还需要进行更多相关研究|^CKdd1)_&Y。”
接下来,科学家将在大型哺乳动物身上测试斑马鱼细胞外基质的再生能力I]ybq*zzZJAU
安娜·马特奥为您播报R2mQ0E5FEYa

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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