Looking on the Bright Side Might Help You Live Longer
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
Imagine there is a glass of water on a table in front of you. It has water in it but it is not full. How do you describe the glass? Do you say it is half full or half empty?
If you say half full, you might be an optimist. If you say, half empty, you might be the opposite -- a pessimist.
Optimism and pessimism represent your general attitude toward certain situations or to life in general. And your attitude about life may be more important to living than you think.
A new study suggests that your level of optimism may affect your health. People who are optimistic may live longer than those who are pessimistic.
Researchers at Harvard University's School of Public Health in Boston did the study. They compared women with "a general expectation that good things will happen" to women who were less optimistic. They found that the optimists had a much lower risk of getting several deadly diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease and certain types of infection.
The researchers published their findings in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Epidemiology is the study of how diseases spread and how they can be controlled.
Eric Kim is one of the study leaders.
He says there is increasing evidence that strengthening psychological resilience may help prevent disease. Resilience is the ability to recover from difficulty or change. Kim says that these new findings suggest that people should make efforts to increase their resilience and optimism.
He says optimism is connected with healthier behaviors and healthier ways of dealing with difficulty. Optimists tend to take better care of themselves by exercising, eating healthy foods and getting enough sleep.
However, the researchers say that healthy behaviors of optimistic people only partly explain the connection with reduced risk of disease.
For the study, researchers looked at information gathered on 70,000 women in the Nurse's Health Study. This massive study began in 1975. It collects health information on those involved in the study every two years.
The Harvard researchers looked at the level of optimism of the women, as well as other factors such as race, diet, physical activity level and overall health.
They found the most optimistic women had nearly a 30 percent lower risk of dying from disease. When compared to the least optimistic women in the study, the optimistic women had:
an almost forty percent lower risk of dying from heart disease, stroke and respiratory disease,
a fifty percent lower risk of dying from infection,
and a sixteen percent lower risk of dying from cancer.
The researchers note that other studies have linked optimism with reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease. This, however, is the first study to link optimism with reduced mortality from other diseases.
Kaitlin Hagan, another study leader, says earlier studies show that a person can use simple, low-cost methods to increase optimism. For example, she says people can think about and write down the best possible outcomes for areas of their lives, like their careers or relationships.
Leslie Ralph is a clinical psychologist and counselor at the University of Arizona in Tucson. She also blogs about stress management. Ralph has several ideas about how to increase optimism.
She says each night plan to do two or three simple, enjoyable activities the next day. These activities might include watching the sun rise, visiting a friend, dancing to a favorite song or reading a story with your child.
She also suggests that if your day starts badly, simply close your eyes for a moment and take a deep breath. When you open your eyes, imagine your day has started over. It's like having your own restart button.
And the counselor adds offering praise or support to someone can also improve your own outlook. A smile and "thank you" from another person may help you feel more optimistic.
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.dying from 死于
Persons dying from cancer grow thin and visibly waste away.
2.in general 总之；一般而言
I think we need to improve our educational system in general.
3.heart disease 心脏病
Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle has been linked with an increased risk of heart disease.
4.deadly diseases 致死疾病
The private foundation is working to end deadly diseases and poverty.
1.She also suggests that if your day starts badly, simply close your eyes for a moment and take a deep breath.
take a deep breath 深呼吸
Her lips parted as if she were about to take a deep breath.
I hear him take a deep breath.
2.The Harvard researchers looked at the level of optimism of the women, as well as other factors such as race, diet, physical activity level and overall health.
as well as 和...一样；也
They visited some factories, hospitals as well as the school.
It is in his best interests as well as yours.
假设眼前的桌子上放有一杯水 。杯子里有水但没满 。你会如何描述这杯水？你会说杯子是半满的还是半空的？
如果答案是半满的，那么你可能是一位乐观主义者 。相反，你可能是一位悲观主义者 。
乐观和悲观是指你对某一情况或日常生活的总体态度 。生活态度对人生的影响也许超出你的想象 。
一项新研究表明，乐观的程度会影响人的健康 。乐观主义者可能比悲观主义者更长寿 。
哈佛大学公共卫生学院的研究人员主导了这项研究 。他们将乐观的女性相对悲观的女性进行了对比 。他们发现乐观的女性患致命疾病的风险更低，包括癌症、心脏病、中风、呼吸道疾病及某类感染 。
研究人员将研究结果刊登在《美国流行病学》杂志上 。流行病学主要研究疾病的传播与控制 。
埃里克·金姆（Eric Kim）是该研究的负责人之一 。
他表示，加强心理韧性或有助于预防疾病的证据层出不穷 。韧性是指从困难或变故中复原的能力 。金姆表示，新研究结果表明，人应该不断增强自身的韧性和乐观情绪 。
他说，所谓乐观与健康的行为与应对困难的正确方式有关 。乐观主义者更倾向于通过锻炼、健康饮食及充足睡眠来照料自己 。
研究人员为此还查询了《护士健康研究》所采集的7万名女性的健康信息 。这一大规模研究始于1975年，之后每两年采集一次参与者的健康信息 。
研究人员指出，已有研究称乐观情绪与降低死于心血管疾病的风险有关 。然而，他们这份研究首次将乐观与降低其它疾病死亡率联系起来 。
该研究的另一位负责人凯特琳·哈根(Kaitlin Hagan)称，早期研究表明人们可通过简单、低廉的方式提升乐观情绪 。例如，人们可以回想并记录下事业或人际关系等人生中最得意的事情 。
莱丝莉·拉尔夫（Leslie Ralph）是图森市亚利桑那大学的临床心理学家和心理顾问 。她在博客上发表了有关压力管理的文章 。拉尔夫给出了几条提高乐观情绪的建议 。
她说，每晚要策划次日要进行的两、三项简单的娱乐活动 。包括看日出、访亲友、跟着音乐翩翩起舞或与孩子一起读故事 。
她还建议称，若一大早心情不畅，只要闭上眼睛深呼吸 。睁开眼睛后，想象这一天又重新开始 。就像自己有个重启按钮 。
她还补充说，称赞或帮助别人也能提升自己的道德观 。别人的一个微笑和一句感谢也会让你笑容满面 。