Chicago Working to Reduce Gun Violence
Gun violence is an issue in Chicago, Illinois, America's third largest city.
The Chicago Tribune reported that 61 people were shot in the city during the long Christmas holiday weekend. Eleven of those shot died, the newspaper said. The holiday weekend ended Monday night.
The Tribune said the attacks brought the total number of shootings for 2016 to more than 4,300. The number killed in shootings this year reached 770, it said.
In 2015, 2,989 people were shot and 492 were killed in gun violence.
Chicago is not the only city in the United States to report an increase in shootings and murders.
The Brennan Center for Justice is a non-profit research group with ties to New York University's Law School. It reported last week that the murder rate for 2016 in America's 30 largest cities is expected to be 14 percent higher than the rate last year.
The center blames the increase on fewer police officers working in some cities, as well as poverty and increased gang violence. But it said that two large cities -- Baltimore and Washington D.C. -- have fewer murders this year than in 2015.
Eddie Johnson is Chicago's Police Superintendent. He said 90 percent of those killed in his city over Christmas weekend had ties to gangs, criminal histories or had been identified as potential offenders or victims.
Johnson urged politicians to increase sentences for people found guilty of gun crimes.
"If you pick up a gun and shoot somebody, you should go to prison, period, that's the end of the story," he said.
"Some people want to give them a pass for it. I don't," he added.
Chicago is working to add police officers who more closely represent the ethnicity and races of city residents.
Rahm Emanuel is mayor of Chicago. He said, "Officers come together from different backgrounds, different cultures, and different faiths for a common cause: to serve and protect the people of the City of Chicago. And this whole city will be behind our officers, rooting for their success."
Gary Slutkin is founder of a group called Cure Violence. His group has trained people to work in their communities to persuade people to choose non-violent ways of dealing with conflicts.
Slutkin said the workers often knew when a young person was planning a violent act just by living nearby. Because they have credibility with their neighbors, they often have more influence than police, or even parents, he said.
Often the "issue" with another young person was not that big a deal -- maybe someone spoke to his girlfriend or owes him money. His workers, Slutkin said, could persuade young people that their problem with another person was not worth a violent response.
"Sometimes it is simply pointing out that if you go ahead and do it (shoot somebody), people are going to be looking for pay back against you or you might be spending 20 years or more in prison," Slutkin said.
But he said a loss of government assistance has left all but one city neighborhood without the program this year. He believes the lost funding and higher shooting rates are related.
Slutkin is a professor of epidemiology at the University of Illinois' School of Public Health. He said his program uses policies developed by health experts to deal with disease. It works, he said, because violence can spread just like diseases such as AIDS or tuberculosis.
His Cure Violence Program operates in 25 U.S. cities, as well as in other countries, such as South Africa, Honduras, Mexico, and prisons in Britain.
I'm Ashley Thompson.
1.gun violence 枪支暴力
The Empire State Building shooting: how can we respond to gun violence?
2.working to 致力于
Crews are working to plug a major oil leak.
3.deal with 处理
She saw a psychiatrist who used hypnotism to help her deal with her fear.
4.as well as 也；和...一样
They visited some factories, hospitals as well as the school.
1.people are going to be looking for pay back against you or you might be spending 20 years or more in prison
pay back 偿还；报答
Some day I'll pay you back for this!
I'll pay you back that two quid tomorrow.
2."If you pick up a gun and shoot somebody, you should go to prison, period, that's the end of the story," he said.
go to prison 入狱
I am not to go to prison for six months!
You'll go to prison for treason and murder.
《芝加哥论坛报》称，在周末的圣诞假期间，芝加哥市有61人遭遇枪击 。其中有11因枪击身亡 。周一晚间，圣诞假期结束 。
《芝加哥论坛报》称，近期发生的枪击案使2016年的枪击案件总数超4300起 。该报指出，2016年被枪杀的人数多达770人 。
布伦南司法中心是一家与纽约大学法学院有关的非营利研究团体 。上周，该研究团体报道称，2016年，美国30个大城市的谋杀率预计比去年高出14％ 。
布伦南司法中心将该现象归咎于一些城市在职警员人数的减少以及贫困和帮派暴力的增加 。但该中心指出，今年，巴尔的摩和华盛顿这两大城市的谋杀率低于2015年 。
埃迪·约翰逊（Eddie Johnson）是芝加哥市的警察局长 。他表示，芝加哥圣诞节期间遇害的人中90％都参与帮派、有前科、或被列为潜在罪犯或受害者 。
拉姆·伊曼纽尔（Rahm Emanuel）是芝加哥市长 。他说，“地域、文化和信仰不同的警务人员都是为了一项共同的事业——服务和保护芝加哥人民 。整座城市都将成为其有力的后盾，给予他们支持 。
加里·斯卢克金（Gary Slutkin）是“治愈暴力（Cure Violence）”团体的创始人 。该组织已经培训人们在自己的社区工作，说服人们以非暴力手段处理冲突 。
斯卢克金说，当周围的年轻人商议暴力行为时，职员们容易得到消息 。他说，因为他们在邻里间极具公信力，所以往往比警察、甚至家长更具影响力 。
年轻人之间的“矛盾”通常不是什么大问题，也许有人出言调戏自己的女朋友或是欠钱不还 。斯卢克金说，他的职员就能够劝导年轻人，这等鸡毛蒜皮的小事不值得诉诸暴力 。
但他表示，今年，丧失政府支持导致一个城市的社区出现了这类问题 。他认为缺乏资金支持与枪击率激增是息息相关的 。
斯卢特金是伊利诺伊大学公共卫生学院的一位流行病学教授 。他表示，这个项目采用了卫生专家制定的用于解决疾病问题的政策 。他说，这样行之有效，因为暴力会像艾滋病或结核病一样传播 。