People in Zimbabwe have been spending the night queuing outside banks hoping of getting their hands on their money before new government bonds are introduced. They are fearful of repeat of the economic crisis which saw inflation peak at 80 billion percent. Many lost their life savings and they don’t want that to happen again. Our business correspondent told me more.
Back in 2009 and before that, a 100 trillion Zimdollar note was barely enough to buy a candy bar if you were lucky enough to find one. That problem was eased when Zimbabwe started using the US dollar. Now at the moment, the main currency out there being used is the US dollar but there aren’t enough of them going around. They are in short supply through the country. So people want to get hold of them while they can and of course the government says it’s got a solution, the so-called bond note, not a currency but a surrogate currency, so like a currency. And in theory they’ll have the same value as equivalent dollar amounts. But what people really want is the cash that they can rely on. That’s why they’re queuing up to get it.
I understand people don’t know what these bond notes are gonna look like, so there is a risk of people circulating fake notes.
Well, exactly. There are reports that fake notes have come into circulation or are ready to be put into circulation before the official ones. And that’s simply worse than the problem. First of all, you get more notes in circulation. So they won’t want to use them. And that’s the problem. If a currency doesn’t have trust, people won’t want to use it, it will decline in value. So it might start off having a nominal value equivalent to the US dollar, but it’s unlikely to stay that way.
And what happens if people feel they can’t trust these new bond notes?
Well, they’ll trade in whatever ways and means they can. In some Zimbabwean cities cash cards have been used more commonly. In some places people are moving more towards more a cashless economy. Now that’s quite strange in a country like Zimbabwe where an awful lot of trade is done on the black economy and relies on cash. But if you don’t have any cash, you have to move to other things. In more rural areas, apparently there’s more bartering going on. So rather than paying for things in cash, you might pay for them in chickens or other agricultural produce that you have. So people will always find a way. They’ll always find something to trade. But if you haven’t got a solid reliable currency, the economy can not work efficiently, and that’s the problem.
Turkey is facing increasing pressure from the EU and the US following the arrest of 12 prominent Kurdish parliamentarians earlier on Friday.
A country that wants to introduce the death penalty, a country that almost every day arrests journalists, politicians, citizens, a country that doesn’t respect human rights, such a country can not get a free ride.
1. get one’s hands on 得到，找到，占有
例：Barack Obama got his hands on Apple's tablet device before it even hit the shops - after being given one personally by Steve Jobs.
2．be fearful of 害怕
例：Taking myself as an example, I used to be fearful of public speaking when I was young. 就拿我来说吧，我年轻的时候曾很害怕在公众面前讲话 。
3. be in short supply 供不应求
例：Fresh water and other commodities are in short supply.
4. start off 出发，开始
例：Where to start off?
5. agricultural produce 农产品
例：Seventy per cent of our production team's income derives from agricultural produce.
津巴布韦人民连夜在银行排队，希望在新的政府债券出台前拿到现金 。他们害怕经济危机重现，通货膨胀达到百分之八百亿的峰值 。当时许多人失去了一生的储蓄，所以他们不想重蹈覆辙 。本台商业记者详细报道 。
回顾2009年及更早的时候，一百万亿津元现钞还不够买一个巧克力棒，而且能找到巧克力棒还得碰运气 。这个问题在津巴布韦开始使用美元后得到缓解 。眼下市面上使用的主要货币是美元，但流通的数量不够，整个国家货币供不应求 。所以人们希望趁机把现金拿到手，当然，政府称已经有解决方案了，也就是所谓的债券式票据，它不是货币，而是代理货币，类似货币 。而且从理论上来说，两者与等价美元数额有相同的价值 。但民众真正需要的是可以依靠的现金 。这就是他们排队取钱的原因 。
嗯，一点没错 。有报道称，在官方货币发行前已经有假币流通或准备流通了 。这比问题本身还要糟 。首先，流通中的货币增加了，而民众不想使用货币 。这是个问题 。如果一种货币没有信度，民众不想使用这种货币，那它就会贬值 。因此，开始流通时，它的票面价值也许会和美元等价，但不太可能保持不变 。
那他们会用一切能想到的方式和途径进行交易 。在津巴布韦部分城市，使用更普遍的是现金支取卡 。还有一些地方的民众正在转向一种无现金经济 。现在这种情况在津巴布韦这样的国家很奇怪，因为它的大量交易在黑市经济发生，依赖现金 。但如果没有现金，就得用其他方法了 。在更多农村地区，明显物物交换更盛行 。你可能不用现金买东西，而用鸡或手中其他农产品支付 。总之人们总会有办法的 。他们总会找到交易的东西 。但如果没有坚实可靠的货币，经济不能有效运行，那这就成问题了 。