VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):科学家在大脑发育领域取得新突破
日期:2016-12-21 11:02

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Scientists Find New Step in Brain Development
Over the years, scientists and medical researchers have spent much time studying the human brain. Even after countless studies, the workings of the brain remain largely a mystery.
New research, however, is shining light on how this complex organ develops.
Scientists in California say they have discovered a formerly unknown period of brain development in newborn babies.
They say the discovery may help answer questions about the human thought process. It may also lead to a better understanding of diseases of the human nervous system.
Scientists once thought that the wiring of most babies' brains -- their brain's circuitry -- develops before they are born. But new research shows that this circuitry is a work-in-progress. It continues developing for months after birth.
Scientists at the University of California in San Francisco (UCSF) studied neurons that are believed to form deep in the brain. They found that these cells move to the brain's prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is an area that influences personality development and much more.
The findings may lead to a better understanding of how the human brain grows and develops.
Arturo Alvarez-Buylla is a Professor of Neurological Surgery at the university. He says the discovery shows that neurons make very long trips in the brain.
They migrate like some animals -- moving from the place where they are born to their final resting place. At this location, the cells become part of a complex system of wiring, which makes up our brain.
The professor calls this a "fascinating phenomenon."
"It is just a fascinating phenomenon when it happens in the embryo, and it's happening in a much more complex brain that is bigger and much more complex. ... That fact that these cells can make these long migrations, journeys from the site where they are probably born to their ultimate locations, where they are going to become integrated into circuits."
These circuits, or pathways, in the prefrontal cortex are thought to be linked to neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia.
The professor says the progress made by the scientific community is fascinating. But, he adds, they still have a long way to go.
"We have learned tremendously about brain development, but it's still a very small fraction of what we need to know to really understand how the brain functions and gets assembled. So it's fascinating that we are making progress so fast, but we have a long way to go."
So, as newborn babies sleep quietly in their beds, their brains are busy. They are busy making connections that will shape their reasoning, personalities and perception of the world.
I'm Anna Matteo.

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词汇解析

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1.lead to 导致

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A lack of prudence may lead to financial problems.
不够谨慎可能会导致财政上出现问题y9kQk%p~EKMk

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2.nervous system 神经系统

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They recorded the action of the drug on the nervous system.
他们记录了药物对神经系统的作用CmUJoDTvD!@#

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3.making connections 建立联系

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Making connections is an important aspect of work.
建立人际关系是工作中的一个重要方面vDvLqAoO1C(Vxq;4WSA6

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4.make up 组合

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He makes up for lost time and starts to kill people.
他为弥补失去地时光开始了杀戮PKE;-@%kc_i_k

内容解析

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1.But new research shows that this circuitry is a work-in-progress.

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work-in-progress 在制品;半成品

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Here is a work-in-progress what I got using this approach.
这个是我这样制作得到的效果kvXeL3Ls&gEpT4u3T*U
This is still work-in-progress, we've got a lot of balance work ahead of us.
在我们进行许多平衡工作之前,工作仍在进行中#(VESS8gvO.^q^7o

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2.So it's fascinating that we are making progress so fast, but we have a long way to go."

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a long way to go ...还有很长的路

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It's a long way to go for two people in their seventies.
对于两个七十几岁的人来说,这段路太远了_BDc0rQu03nV&e@Y
There was still a long way to go. Nonetheless, some progress had been made
路还很长,不过已经取得了一些进展4Jh#Bn!TBm=Dc].F~I1

参考译文

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科学家在大脑发育领域取得新突破
历年来,科学家和医学研究员在人类大脑发育的研究领域花费了大量时间J8|XB2,39HW4g。虽然经过无数次研究,但是大脑发育在很大程度上依旧是个未解之谜1j#&TJH#P3mol,o
然而,新研究发现了大脑复杂的发育过程d!F*c,PJZ,095P

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科学家在大脑发育领域取得新突破.jpg
加利福尼亚的科学家称,他们发现新生儿大脑存在未知的发育期F2roIk;lFr[y%RZ3
他们认为此次发现或有助于解释某些与人类思维有关的问题#jg0KkS!S,E&,。还有助于更好地探知人类神经系统方面的疾病P0Nj@aL=(2xk
科学家原以为大多数婴儿脑部的连接——大脑神经连接线路在其出生前就已形成@rI7rCiobYf*。然而新的研究表明,这种连接线路只是个半成品!bi8PQbGJ&。婴儿出生后的几个月内仍会继续发育sQ!TGN0|PwqW!e5cf0
加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校(UCSF)的科学家研究了在大脑深处形成的神经元OuGs]o34=x4*x,s3jU。他们发现这些细胞会移至大脑的前额叶皮层kMZ^wuNo%W。前额叶皮层区域不仅影响人格的塑造,也对其他方面有重要作用39Kc@j%[b&4.SZF(
该发现或有助于更全面地理解大脑的生长和发育的过程Kh~vhVMGnPqOtRM
阿图罗·阿尔瓦雷斯(Arturo Alvarez-Buylla)是加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校神经外科的教授#Bw&l)p%WM4y#H^XIz。他表示,此次发现表明神经元在大脑中活动的线路很长GpIRo&k=stjQvMg
它们像动物一样迁移,从出生的地方移至最终落脚之处rRT6#S-%W4OZXu]d。在此区域,细胞成为复杂的大脑连接系统的组成部分,大脑因此成型T5z*ea27jz04J*]uxBU
教授称之为“神奇的现象”-IbspGK,YXOcg!D%Up
“当其在胚胎中发育时,这只是个有趣的现象,而更神奇更复杂的是它在复杂的大脑中成型,这些细胞可以从生成的地方长距离地移动到最终集成线路的地方*h*zU3P#zp0Zn54t
他们认为前额叶皮层中的这些线路(路径)与自闭症和精神分裂症等神经障碍类疾病有关fUg+RigQI=uU52t
教授表示,科学领域的进步令人称奇nY6fP_By_g。但他们还有很长的路要走&*jr]7hP(u)@]fAW-k
“虽然我们对大脑发育已经了解很多,但在真正了解大脑运作及组合方面,我们仍然需要进一步探索uGi3DqmjGQL-H@y6。令人欣慰的是我们取得了飞速发展,但是仍然还有很长的路要走”Ca**4yk@+s#b(EQ
新生儿安静地在床上睡觉时,其实他们的大脑非常忙碌ELoh!boc@zdHA。他们忙着为塑造自己的推理能力、个性以及世界观而建立联系Q!Tp._OSbeb
安娜·马特奥为您播报irXq~DMV!%

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • fractionn. 分数,小部分,破片
  • perceptionn. 感知,认识,观念
  • ultimaten. 终极,根本,精华 adj. 终极的,根本的,极限的
  • nonethelessadv. 尽管如此(仍然)
  • phenomenonn. 现象,迹象,(稀有)事件
  • surgeryn. 外科,外科手术,诊所
  • approachn. 接近; 途径,方法 v. 靠近,接近,动手处理
  • understandvt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为
  • mysteryn. 神秘,秘密,奥秘,神秘的人或事物
  • prudencen. 审慎,慎重,精心明辨