Scientists Find New Step in Brain Development
Over the years, scientists and medical researchers have spent much time studying the human brain. Even after countless studies, the workings of the brain remain largely a mystery.
New research, however, is shining light on how this complex organ develops.
Scientists in California say they have discovered a formerly unknown period of brain development in newborn babies.
They say the discovery may help answer questions about the human thought process. It may also lead to a better understanding of diseases of the human nervous system.
Scientists once thought that the wiring of most babies' brains -- their brain's circuitry -- develops before they are born. But new research shows that this circuitry is a work-in-progress. It continues developing for months after birth.
Scientists at the University of California in San Francisco (UCSF) studied neurons that are believed to form deep in the brain. They found that these cells move to the brain's prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is an area that influences personality development and much more.
The findings may lead to a better understanding of how the human brain grows and develops.
Arturo Alvarez-Buylla is a Professor of Neurological Surgery at the university. He says the discovery shows that neurons make very long trips in the brain.
They migrate like some animals -- moving from the place where they are born to their final resting place. At this location, the cells become part of a complex system of wiring, which makes up our brain.
The professor calls this a "fascinating phenomenon."
"It is just a fascinating phenomenon when it happens in the embryo, and it's happening in a much more complex brain that is bigger and much more complex. ... That fact that these cells can make these long migrations, journeys from the site where they are probably born to their ultimate locations, where they are going to become integrated into circuits."
These circuits, or pathways, in the prefrontal cortex are thought to be linked to neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia.
The professor says the progress made by the scientific community is fascinating. But, he adds, they still have a long way to go.
"We have learned tremendously about brain development, but it's still a very small fraction of what we need to know to really understand how the brain functions and gets assembled. So it's fascinating that we are making progress so fast, but we have a long way to go."
So, as newborn babies sleep quietly in their beds, their brains are busy. They are busy making connections that will shape their reasoning, personalities and perception of the world.
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.lead to 导致
A lack of prudence may lead to financial problems.
2.nervous system 神经系统
They recorded the action of the drug on the nervous system.
3.making connections 建立联系
Making connections is an important aspect of work.
4.make up 组合
He makes up for lost time and starts to kill people.
1.But new research shows that this circuitry is a work-in-progress.
Here is a work-in-progress what I got using this approach.
This is still work-in-progress, we've got a lot of balance work ahead of us.
2.So it's fascinating that we are making progress so fast, but we have a long way to go."
a long way to go ...还有很长的路
It's a long way to go for two people in their seventies.
There was still a long way to go. Nonetheless, some progress had been made
历年来，科学家和医学研究员在人类大脑发育的研究领域花费了大量时间 。虽然经过无数次研究，但是大脑发育在很大程度上依旧是个未解之谜 。
他们认为此次发现或有助于解释某些与人类思维有关的问题 。还有助于更好地探知人类神经系统方面的疾病 。
科学家原以为大多数婴儿脑部的连接——大脑神经连接线路在其出生前就已形成 。然而新的研究表明，这种连接线路只是个半成品 。婴儿出生后的几个月内仍会继续发育 。
加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校（UCSF）的科学家研究了在大脑深处形成的神经元 。他们发现这些细胞会移至大脑的前额叶皮层 。前额叶皮层区域不仅影响人格的塑造，也对其他方面有重要作用 。
阿图罗·阿尔瓦雷斯（Arturo Alvarez-Buylla）是加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校神经外科的教授 。他表示，此次发现表明神经元在大脑中活动的线路很长 。
它们像动物一样迁移，从出生的地方移至最终落脚之处 。在此区域，细胞成为复杂的大脑连接系统的组成部分，大脑因此成型 。
教授表示，科学领域的进步令人称奇 。但他们还有很长的路要走 。
“虽然我们对大脑发育已经了解很多，但在真正了解大脑运作及组合方面，我们仍然需要进一步探索 。令人欣慰的是我们取得了飞速发展，但是仍然还有很长的路要走” 。
新生儿安静地在床上睡觉时，其实他们的大脑非常忙碌 。他们忙着为塑造自己的推理能力、个性以及世界观而建立联系 。