VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):美国有三分之一的县的死亡率超过出生率
日期:2016-11-07 16:52

(单词翻译:单击)

听力文本

Recently, we reported on the importance of counties in the United States.Today we have a lot more on what the U.S. Census Bureau calls "the primary political and administrative divisions of states."There are more than 3,000 counties nationwide.Most states use the word "county" to describe these subdivisions, or separate areas, within a larger territory.Naturally, there are exceptions to this definition.
For example, the southern state of Louisiana is divided up into parishes.The Census Bureau reports that 1,653 counties lost population between 2010 and 2015.That is more than half of all counties nationwide.
At the same time, the general population grew by about 4 percent.Delaware and Hawaii are the only two states that did not have a single county with a falling population number.If not for new immigrants, 194 more U.S. counties would have lost population.
More people are dying than are being born in more than one-third of all counties.Population experts call this "natural decrease."
But that does not always mean their population is shrinking.A county's population can grow even when there are more deaths than births.The reason? People are moving there from other parts of the United States or from other countries.
Some news stories have described counties that record more deaths than births as "dying counties."In 2009, the Census Bureau reported natural decrease in 880 counties.
In 2012, the Census Bureau estimated natural decrease in 1,135 counties.Most were in rural areas.
Kenneth Johnson is a professor of sociology at the University of New Hampshire.He told the Associated Press that the number of counties with natural decrease is rising not only because there are fewer births than deaths in those areas.He said another reason is an increase in the number of deaths among "baby boomers."
The term baby boomer is used to describe the 70 million Americans who were born between 1946 and 1964. Johnson said, "I expect natural decrease to remain high in the future.These counties are in a pretty steep downward spiral. The young people leave and the older adults stay in place and age."
He adds, "that unless something major changes -- for instance, new development such as a meatpacking plant to attract young Hispanics these areas are likely to have more and more natural decrease."
About 46 percent of rural counties experienced natural decrease. That compares to 17 percent of counties in populated areas. Experts say counties "die" because they have increasingly-older populations, a low birth rate and a poor economy.
They say it is difficult for some areas to retain or attract younger people. Japan and many European countries have been experiencing natural decrease for many years. In the United States, the 10 largest counties are in the West, in states such as California, Arizona and Nevada.
Some of the smallest counties are in eastern states.
The first counties were created in Virginia in the 1630s. Maryland and Massachusetts established counties a short time later.
The Census Bureau says there are 3,031 counties nationwide. But the National Association of Counties says there are 3,069.
Association officials told VOA they use the term "counties" for both county governments and county geographies with county governments. Five of the 10 smallest counties by population are in the state of Nebraska. Cook County, Illinois, which includes Chicago, is the second-most-populous county in the nation.
It has more people than 29 states and more than the seven smallest states combined.The top four most densely populated counties are in the New York City area.The top four least densely populated counties are in Alaska.Some cities and counties have joined together.In other words, the city and county are controlled by one government.
These include the city and borough of Anchorage, Alaska and the city and county of San Francisco, California;Denver, Colorado; Baltimore, Maryland and St. Louis, Missouri.Yet the state of Virginia has 39 independent cities that are not part of any county.Generally, county governments are strongest in the western and southern United States, and weakest in the east, where there are more cities.Few counties create laws like state legislatures and city councils do.
Most just enforce state laws.There are about 3.6 million county government employees in the United States.About a third of counties operate hospitals.
Counties are involved in 27 percent of public transportation systems and 34 percent of public airports.They own 40 percent of the bridges, and own and repair 45 percent of the roads.
And that's all we have today about U.S. counties.
I'm Anna Matteo.
And I'm Christopher Jones-Cruise.

词汇解析
1.more than 多于;超出;比……多
They captured more than ten thousand prisoners and large quantities of arms in that campaign.
他们在那次战役中俘获了一万多战俘和大量武器。


2.natural decrease 自然减少
And it followed a huge decrease in the number of older women treated with female hormones to ease conditions caused by a natural decrease in such hormones.
随之而来的便是借助(注射)雌性激素来缓解自身该激素减少的老年妇女数量的大大减少。


3.join together 结合;连接
In his remarks on the South Driveway, the President said this legislation “makes sense, and normally we would expect Democrats and Republicans to join together.
在他谈到南车道时,他说这个法令是“有意义的,而且我们希望民主党和共和党一起加入。”


4.be controlled by 被...控制
It will move horizontally back and forth at the bottom of the screen, shooting bullets upwards. Your ship will be controlled by, say, the keyboard.
在这个游戏中,您将通过键盘来控制一个宇宙飞船,它可以在屏幕底端水平向前或向后移动,还可以向上发射子弹。


内容解析

1.For example, the southern state of Louisiana is divided up into parishes.
for example 例如
For example, I have problems with proofreading.
举例来说,我在校对方面有问题。
For example; I used to be afraid to be myself when I socialized with anyone.
例如,当与别人交往时我会感觉害怕,我意识到我害怕的是自己。

2.At the same time, the general population grew by about 4 percent.
at the same time 同时;然而
How is it possible to feel love for two men at the same time?
怎么可能同时爱两个男人呢?
I can’t attend to everything at the same time ——please come and help!
我不能同时处理每件事 ——请来帮个忙!



参考译文

最近我们就美国郡县的重要性进行了报道。今天我们来更多地谈一谈这个郡县,它被美国人口普查局称为"国家主要政治和行政区划"的郡县。美国有3000多个郡县。
大多数州使用"县"这个词,来描述州内的这些分支地区。parishes.当然,这个定义也有其他例外。
比如,南部的路易斯安那州被分为各个教区。美国人口普查局的报告显示,2010年到2015年间,有1653个县的人口出现下降,这个数字超过了美国所有县总数的50%。
美国与此同时,美国总人口增长了大约4%。只有特拉华和夏威夷两个州所辖的县中,各县的人口都没有出现下降。要不是因为新移民,美国还有194个县的人口会出现下降。
美国有三分之一的县的死亡率超过出生率,人口专家称这种现象为"人口自然减少"。但是这并非总是意味着人口正在减少。即使一个县的死亡率超过出生率,人口也可能会增长。
这是什么原因呢?因为人们从美国其它地方或其它国家迁移到这里。一些新闻将死亡率高于出生率的县称之为"正在消失的县"。2009年,美国人口普查局报道称,美国有880个县存在人口自然减少问题。
到了2012年,人口普查局预计1135个县存在人口自然减少问题。其中大多数县都在农村地区。肯尼斯·约翰逊(Kenneth Johnson)是新罕布什尔大学的社会学教授。他对美联社表示,人口自然减少的县在不断增加,这不仅是因为出生人数少于死亡人数,还有一个原因是"婴儿潮一代"中的死亡人数的增加。
"婴儿潮一代"这个术语用于描述1946年到1964年之间出生的7千万美国人。约翰逊表示,"我预计人口自然减少未来仍然会很高。这些县处于一个相当陡峭的下降螺旋。
年轻人都走了,只留下老年人不断老去。"他补充说,"除非有重大变化,例如新的发展,如肉类加工厂吸引西班牙裔年轻人过来。
否则这些县的人口自然减少可能会越来越严重。"大约46%的农村县经历了人口自然减少。相比之下,人口稠密地区只有17%的县有此烦恼。
专家表示,县的消亡是因为该县的人口不断老龄化,出生率低和经济不景气。他们说一些地区很难留住或吸引年轻人。日本和很多欧洲国家已经经历了多年的人口自然减少。美国最大的10个县都在西部,隶属加州、亚利桑那州和内华达州这些州。
一些最小的县都在东部州。
美国第一个县于17世纪30年代在弗吉尼亚州建立。不久之后马里兰州和马萨诸塞州也建立了县。美国人口普查局表示,全国范围内有3031个县。
但是美国全国郡县协会说有3069个县。协会官员对美国之音表示,他们对县政府和县政府内的县级区域都称之为县。人口最少的10个县中,有5个位于内布拉斯加州。伊利诺伊州库克县下辖芝加哥市,它是美国人口第二大县。
其人口超过了29个州各自的人口,也超过了7个最小州的总人口。人口最密集的四个县位于纽约市地区。

美国.jpg


人口最稀少的四个县位于阿拉斯加。一些城市和县已经连成一片。
换句话说,该市和县由同一个政府管辖。其中包括阿拉斯加州的安克雷奇市和自治市镇,加利福尼亚州的旧金山市与县,
科罗拉多州的丹佛市与县,马里兰州的巴尔的摩市与县以及密苏里州的圣路易斯市与县。然而,弗利尼亚州有39个独立的城市,不隶属于任何县。
一般来说,美国西部和南部的县政府最强,东部有更多城市,这里的县最弱。少数县像州立法机构和市议会一样制定法律,
而大多数县只执行州法律。美国有360万县政府雇员。
大约三分之一的县经营医院。各县参与了27%的公共交通和34%的公共机场。它们拥有40%的桥梁,拥有和维修45%的道路。
以上就是今天我们所讲的美国郡县的所有内容。
我是安娜·马特奥。
我是克里斯托弗·琼斯克鲁斯。

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重点单词
  • associationn. 联合,结合,交往,协会,社团,联想
  • transportationn. 运输,运输系统,运输工具
  • independentadj. 独立的,自主的,有主见的 n. 独立派人士,无
  • censusn. 户口普查
  • screenn. 屏,幕,银幕,屏风 v. 放映,选拔,掩蔽,遮蔽
  • establishedadj. 已被确认的,确定的,建立的,制定的 动词est
  • retainvt. 保持,保留; 记住
  • operatev. 操作,运转,经营,动手术
  • separaten. 分开,抽印本 adj. 分开的,各自的,单独的 v
  • describevt. 描述,画(尤指几何图形),说成