Suicides Leave Lasting Effects on Friends, Family
September is suicide prevention month in the United States.
The World Health Organization (WHO) considers suicide a worldwide problem.
WHO reports that 800,000 people take their own lives each year. On average, a person commits suicide every 40 seconds, it said.
WHO officials say suicides have long-lasting effects on the family members and friends left behind.
People not only feel very sad about the death, but feel guilt for not taking action they think might have prevented the suicide.
A Woman Who Lost Her Father and Son to Suicide
Dorothy Paugh was nine years old when her father shot himself to death.
"I count that day as the last day of my childhood," Paugh said. "Because from that moment on, I had no sense of security. I had no sense that the world was a safe place."
She made her comments as she stood near her father's burial place at Arlington National Cemetery, just outside of Washington D.C. It is where American war veterans are buried. Her father served in the U.S. military during World War II.
Dorothy Paugh's life was shaken again -- 50 years after her dad's suicide. Her son Peter bought a gun for protection. Peter would go on to take his life at the age of 25.
Paugh looks at a photograph of her son. "This is my favorite picture of Peter because he has a hint of a smile," she said.
Paugh said it is important that people not see those who take their own lives as cowards. "Because my father was brave," she said. "He fought in World War II....I think he just got overwhelmed."
Veterans Trying to Stop Suicides
Seven hundred fifty U.S. military veterans rode bicycles 110 miles from Arlington, Virginia to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. They wanted to bring attention to the continuing problem of suicides.
One of the riders was retired Army Sergeant Norberto Roman of Puerto Rico. "Our mission is to stop the suicides," he said.
Suicide is a very personal to Roman.
"I tried to commit suicide myself in Iraq and I went through eight years of hell, through PTSD treatment and I'm blessed to be here today," he said.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is known by the letters PTSD. The National Institute of Mental Health describes it as a condition suffered by individuals who experienced a shocking, frightening or dangerous event.
More Action is Needed
The World Health Organization said in its recent report that more action can be taken to reduce suicides.
Many people who commit suicide do so by swallowing poison, using a gun or taking an overdose of drugs, WHO officials said. They added that people should try harder to keep those things away from individuals who might use them to hurt themselves or others.
It would also be helpful to reduce the stigma of suicide, WHO said. A stigma is when people have a poor or bad opinion about something, often for no good reason. The stigma makes people afraid to ask for help when they are thinking of taking their own lives, the WHO report said.
Paugh, who lost her father and son to suicide, now works to inform people about the problem. She urges them to take action if they have reason to think a friend or relative is considering suicide.
"If we think someone may be troubled, ask them outright if they are having thoughts of suicide," Paugh said. It is not an easy discussion, but it is much better "than a funeral," she added.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among people aged 15-29 years old, according to the World Health Organization.
I'm Bruce Alpert.
Smoking can have a long-lasting effect on smokers'health.
2.left behind 留下
When the other pupils were taken to an exhibition, he was left behind.
Her burst of exuberance and her brightness overwhelmed me.
4.a hint of 少许；一点
She added only a hint of vermouth to the gin
1.On average, their graduation rate was between about four to six percent higher than students who never changed majors.
On average 平均；普通
American shares rose, on average, by 38%
On average each report requires 1,000 hours to prepare
2.People not only feel very sad about the death, but feel guilt for not taking action they think might have prevented the suicide.
taking action 采取行动
We are taking action, having been in receipt of a letter from him
It was widely believed that Powell had stampeded the Government into taking action.
据世卫组织报告，每年有多达80万的人自杀 。平均每40秒就有1人自杀 。
多萝西·庞（Dorothy Paugh）九岁时，她父亲开枪自杀身亡 。
庞说，“那一天宣告着我美好童年的终结 。”“因为从那一刻开始，我失去了安全感 。我觉得这个世界再也不安全了 。”
华盛顿郊区的阿灵顿国家公墓园内，她站在父亲的墓前说了这番话 。很多美国退役老兵长眠于此 。二战期间，她父亲曾在美国军队服役 。
父亲自杀50年后，庞的生活再次被阴云笼罩 。儿子皮特（Peter）为了自卫买了一把枪 。皮特的生命永远停在了25岁 。
庞看着儿子的遗照 。她说这是自己最喜欢的一张照片，照片中儿子的脸上露出一抹微笑 。”
庞说人们不应该将自杀的人当做懦夫，这一点非常重要 。“因为我的父亲很勇敢，”她说，“他曾在二战中冲锋陷阵 。我觉得他只是有些迷失了自己 。”
750名美国退役老兵骑车从弗吉尼亚的阿灵顿跋涉110公里后到达宾夕法尼亚的葛底斯堡 。他们想借此呼吁人们重视因自杀引起的后续影响 。
波多黎各的陆军中士诺维托·罗曼（Norberto Roman）是其中一名老兵 。他说，“我们想要制止自杀的行为 。”
创伤后应激障碍也被称为PTSD 。美国国家心理卫生研究所称其为个体经历震惊、恐惧或危险后存在的精神障碍 。
世卫组织工作人员称，多数自杀的人会选择吞食毒药、使用枪支、服用过量药物等方式 。人们应该让有自杀倾向的人远离这些东西，以免他们伤害自己或别人 。
减少对自杀这一行为的羞耻感也是有帮助的 。世卫组织在报告中指出，Stigma是指人们对某事抱有负面的看法，通常是无充分理由的 。这种羞耻感让人在自杀时恐于向外界求助 。
庞的父亲和儿子都因自杀而死，如今她致力于向人们宣传自杀带来的影响 。她呼吁一旦发现朋友或亲人有自杀倾向就要立即行动起来 。
庞说，“如果觉得有人深受困扰，直接问他们是不是有自杀的想法” 。虽然这种对话难以启齿，但好过“参加葬礼” 。