Rio Olympic Games Open This Weekend
Olympic athletes, high-level officials and other people have been arriving in Rio de Janeiro for the opening of the 2016 summer games.
The opening ceremony is Friday night, local time, but some events already started. The first medals will be awarded on Saturday.
The Rio Olympics officially begin Friday, when the Olympic torch is carried into Maracana Stadium to light the Olympic cauldron. The cauldron will stay lit for over two weeks until the closing ceremony on August 21. During that period, 301 gold medals will be awarded to the winners.
At the last summer Olympics, the 2012 London games, the United States won 46 gold medals and 104 medals in all. China was second, with 38 gold medals and a total of 88. Britain finished in third place, with Russia in fourth.
One major question this year is: How many medals will Russia win at the Rio games?
Just before the Olympics started, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) considered banning every member of Russia's team because of a doping scandal.
Investigators for the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) found evidence of Russian athletes using unapproved substances at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. And the agency accused the Russian government of being involved and covering up the activity.
But in the end, the IOC decided not to ban all 387 Russian qualifiers for the Rio games. Many Russian athletes will have a chance to compete. But most of the country's track and field athletes were banned by the International Association of Athletics Federation.
At a meeting in Rio this week, WADA and the IOC criticized each other. WADA officials said the IOC should have banned all the Russian Olympians. The IOC said WADA should have acted faster on the allegations of Russian cheating.
More than 10,000 men and women from over 200 nations will compete at Rio de Janeiro. The first medals, in men's cycling and women's shooting, will be awarded on Saturday. Chris Froome, who won the Tour de France last month, will be representing Britain.
American swimmer Michael Phelps has won the most Olympic medals ever. He has 22 medals, including 18 golds. He will carry the flag of the United States at the opening ceremony on Friday.
Aside from the question of which country will win the most medals, some people are worried about the health of the competitors.
Athletes are being careful about the time they spend out of doors because of concerns about the Zika virus. Zika spreads when mosquitos bite human skin. The virus is linked to microcephaly, a birth defect in which a baby's head is smaller than the heads of other children of the same age and sex.
Olympic organizers say they are not overly concerned about Zika since the games take place during Rio de Janeiro's winter.
Athletes competing in water events, like open-water swimming, rowing and sailing are concerned about polluted water. The Associated Press reports that those athletes run a high risk of getting sick.
Water at some of the competition areas is polluted by untreated waste water. It contains bacteria and viruses carried by human waste.
While some athletes will wear gloves or other protection, it will be hard for the open-water swimmers to keep water from getting into their mouths. Yet Olympic organizers say athletes will not get sick.
April Ross is an American beach volleyball player. She is excited about the chance to compete on the famous Copacabana beach. "I think it's awesome to be playing on an actual beach," Ross said. But medical experts have warned that even the sand from coastal areas carries viruses.
Ross is one of 292 women on the U.S. Olympic team. The number of women on Team USA (292) is greater than the number of men (263).
Some of the strongest and most successful Americans at the games may be women. Swimmer Katie Ledecky is a world record holder in two Olympic events and won the 800-meter freestyle event in London.
The USA women's soccer team has won three gold medals in the past three summer Olympics. The women's basketball team is trying for its sixth straight gold medal.
Women will also be part of the first-ever refugee Olympic team.
Ten athletes from countries like South Sudan, Syria, Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia will compete under the Olympic flag.
Four of them are women, including Yusra Mardini, a Syrian refugee now living in Germany. She and her sister swam across the Aegean Sea when the motor on their boat failed. She and the other refugees were rescued and taken to a Greek island and her sister settled in Germany last year.
1.opening ceremony 开幕式
They ask him to attend the opening ceremony.
2.local time 当地时间
I'd like to set my watch to the local time.
3.Olympic torch 奥运火炬
The Olympic Torch relay requires 10,000 torches.
4.covering up 掩饰；遮盖
He is clever at covering up ignorance.
1.China was second, with 38 gold medals and a total of 88.
a total of 总数为
Their expenses reached a total of 1, 000 pounds.
The mine had yielded a total of about 3714 tons of coal.
2.Olympic organizers say they are not overly concerned about Zika since the games take place during Rio de Janeiro's winter.
take place 发生；举行
His graduation will never take place if he doesn't get to work.
Earthquakes take place far underground.
里约奥运会开幕式将于当地时间周五晚间举行，但是一些竞技项目已然拉开帷幕 。首枚奖牌将于周六诞生 。
本周五，里约奥运会将正式开幕，届时奥运火炬将传递至马拉卡纳体育馆并点燃圣火 。奥运圣火将持续燃烧两周，直至8月21日的闭幕式 。在此期间，共有301枚金牌将颁发给摘得冠军的运动员 。
2012年在伦敦举办的夏季奥运会中，美国共摘得46枚金牌，共104枚奖牌 。中国凭借38枚金牌和88枚奖牌总数排名第二 。而英国排名第三，俄罗斯排名第四 。
世界反兴奋剂机构的调查人员发现，俄罗斯运动员在2014年索契冬奥会上使用违禁药 。该机构指控俄罗斯政府参与并试图包庇这一事实 。
最终，国际奥委会决定不对387名有资格参加里约奥运会的俄罗斯运动员实施禁赛 。多数俄罗斯运动员仍有机会参赛 。然而，国际田联禁止俄罗斯大多数田径运动员参加比赛 。
本周，在里约召开的一次会议中，世界反兴奋剂机构和国际奥委会互相指责 。世界反兴奋剂机构称，国际奥委会应该对所有的俄罗斯运动员禁赛 。而国际奥委会则表示，世界反兴奋剂机构应该尽早就其所指控的俄罗斯兴奋剂“政府行为”展开调查 。
来自200多个国家的10000多名运动员将在里约奥运会上展开角逐 。首枚奖牌将于周六的男子自行车和女子射击比赛中诞生 。上月，赢下环法自行车竞赛的克里斯多夫·弗罗梅（Chris Froome）将代表英国参赛 。
美国游泳选手迈克尔·菲尔普斯（Michael Phelps）是奥运史上摘得最多奥运奖牌的运动员 。他拥有22枚奖牌，其中包括18枚金牌 。本周五的开幕式上，他将担任美国队的旗手 。
考虑到寨卡病毒，运动员们外出时格外谨慎 。寨卡病毒主要通过蚊虫叮咬传播 。该病毒会引发小脑症，这是一种出生缺陷，被感染婴儿的头明显小于同年龄和同性别的婴儿 。
参加公开水域游泳、赛艇和帆船等赛事的运动员们担心水污染问题 。据美联社报道称，这些运动员受感染的风险很高 。
一些比赛区域的水体被未经处理的废水污染 。这些水体含有人体排泄物所携带的细菌和病毒 。
有些运动员会戴上手套或其它保护用品，但对于公开水域游泳的选手来说，难免会有水进入口腔 。然而奥组委表示，运动员不会因此得病 。
阿普里尔·罗斯（April Ross）是一名美国沙滩排球运动员 。有机会到著名的柯帕尔巴海滩比赛，她很激动 。她表示，“我认为在真正的海滩上比赛是非常棒的体验 。”但是医学专家警告称，即使是沿海地区的沙子也会携带病毒 。
罗斯是美国奥运代表队292名女运动员中的一位 。美国代表队中女运动员的数量（292）超过了男运动员的数量（263） 。
本届奥运会中最强、最知名的美国选手也是女性 。例如，泳将姬蒂·雷德基（Katie Ledecky）是两项奥运赛事的世界记录保持者，还在伦敦奥运会上获得了自由泳金牌 。
在过去的3届夏季奥运会中，美国女子足球队先后斩获了金牌 。美国女篮也正努力连续6次问鼎奥运金牌 。
其中有4名女性运动员：尤丝拉·马尔迪尼（Yusra Mardini），这是一名目现居在德国的叙利亚难民 。她和妹妹在难民船的发动机熄火时曾游过了爱琴海 。她和其他难民一起被解救出并带到了一座希腊小岛，之后马尔迪尼和妹妹开始定居德国 。