Getting Tested Is First Step In Controlling HIV/AIDS
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
The International AIDS Conference is being held this week (July 18 – 22) in Durban, South Africa. It is the largest conference on HIV related issues.
A diagnosis of HIV/AIDS is no longer a death sentence. There is no cure but improvements in treatments have made the disease manageable. But it is only manageable if those infected can get treatment.
Getting tested for HIV is simple and fast. Results come in just about five minutes.
VOA recently visited NovaSalud in Falls Church, Virginia. The organization works to reduce the risk of HIV/AIDS and other diseases passed through sex. These are called sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs.
A man calling himself Rigo is also at the site. He is there to be tested. He says "It is important because one never knows what is going on with their partner" or partners in the past.
A woman is also getting tested. She says, "For me it's very important to do an HIV test because we take care of our family and friends. Because if you don't know, how would you know if you are infecting a loved one?"
HIV/AIDS is both treatable and preventable. People who have the AIDS virus can live normal lives as long as they stay on treatment.
Tom Frieden is director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He says the number of AIDS cases has gone down in most parts of U.S. society.
"We've seen huge decreases in heterosexual transmission -- more than two-thirds -- 80% reductions, generally. We've seen the huge decreases in injection drug use as a cause of transmission. But among young men who have sex with men, we've seen increases in HIV infections."
Rodney McCoy is Program Coordinator and Health Educator at NovaSalud. He says the numbers show that in the U.S. gay and bisexual Latino men are most at risk. He adds that there are similar trends among African-Americans.
"Women of childbearing age and young, black, gay and bisexual men seem to most at risk for HIV, for new cases of HIV infections. And then when we look at who progresses from HIV on to AIDS, again blacks and Latinos are most at risk for that."
McCoy says openly recognizing that there is a stigma connected to HIV/AIDS is an important first step.
"The first thing we do is we acknowledge that there is a stigma."
A stigma is a disapproving and often unfair belief that a society or group have about something. The power of stigma keeps people around the world from being tested and getting treatment.
Rodney McCoy and other public health professionals say HIV testing has to become a usual part of health care.
"If you go to the doctor to get your blood work for cholesterol, for high blood pressure. Why not start including HIV and STDs?"
The goal everywhere is to get to the point where:
90 percent of those with HIV know it,
90 percent of the infected get treatment and
90 percent of those people reduce the virus in their blood so much that it can't be found.
The theory is that this will end AIDS as a global public health threat by 2030.
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.no longer 不再
He could no longer hold back his tears.
2.death sentence 死刑
Her love was like a death sentence.
3.take care of 照顾；照料
I ached to be of an age to take care of myself.
4.as long as 只要；和...一样长
As long as you succeed they are yours entirely.
1.He says the numbers show that in the U.S. gay and bisexual Latino men are most at risk.
at risk 处于危险之中
He saved three children alive at risk of his life.
Were those patients now at risk?
2.Rodney McCoy and other public health professionals say HIV testing has to become a usual part of health care.
health care 卫生保健
Medical and health care has grown vigorously.
The State provides free education and health care.
本周国际艾滋病大会（7月18日到22日）在南非德班举行 。这是与艾滋病问题有关的规模最大的会议 。
艾滋病不再是绝症 。虽然尚未发现治愈方法，但是治疗方案的改进已经使艾滋病变得可控，但前提是艾滋病感染者接受治疗 。
美国之音最近探访了弗吉尼亚州福尔斯彻奇市的NovaSalud公司 。该公司致力于降低通过性行为传播艾滋病等疾病的风险，这类疾病被统称为性传播疾病 。
当时，一位名叫Rigo的男子也在场 。他正进行艾滋病检测 。他说，“谁也不知道自己的伴侣或前伴侣经历过什么，所以检测十分必要 。”
一名妇女也在进行艾滋病检测 。她说，“我觉得做艾滋病检测非常重要，因为我们要照顾家人和朋友 。如果你不知情，那你怎么知道自己是否正在感染你爱的人？”
艾滋病可治疗、可预防 。艾滋病病毒携带者只要坚持治疗就可以正常生活 。
汤姆·弗里登（Tom Frieden）是美国疾病控制预防中心的主任 。他说，美国大部分地区的艾滋病病例数量都有所下降 。
他说，“艾滋病的异性性传播降幅明显，下降了80% 。而因吸毒导致传播的病例其降幅也十分明显 。但是我们发现年轻男同性恋中艾滋病感染有所增加 。
罗德尼·麦考伊（Rodney McCoy）是NovaSalud公司的项目协调人和健康教育员 。他说，以上数字表明，美国同性恋和双性恋中的拉丁裔男子风险最高 。非裔美国人中也存在类似的发展趋势 。
他说，“育龄女性及年轻人、黑人、同性恋和双性恋男子感染艾滋病的风险极高 。至于艾滋病毒携带者变为艾滋病感染者，黑人和拉丁裔又是最具风险的人群 。”
恶名是指社会或人群对某件事情拥有的一种不认可、歧视的观念 。恶名使世界各地的人们远离检测和治疗 。