Exercise Can Protect Against Two Major Diseases
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health and Lifestyle report.
We all know that exercise keeps us healthy. But two new studies get more specific. They look at how exercise may lower the risk of two major causes of death – cancer and stroke.
One study says exercise may lower the risk for 13 types of cancer. Another says that middle-aged people can reduce their chance of having a stroke by exercising.
First let's talk about cancer.
Steven Moore of the National Cancer Institute led a team of researchers to study more than 1.4 million people.
The study looked at participants in 12 U.S. and European groups. These people reported on their physical activity between 1987 and 2004. The researchers looked at the occurrence of 26 kinds of cancer among the participants during, on average, the next 11 years.
Many participants reported walking, running and swimming. The researchers took into account how long they exercised per week, what they ate, if they were obese and if they smoked.
In an interview with NBC News, Moore explains that exercise "can help people reduce their risk of heart disease. It can reduce the risk of diabetes." It helps you live longer. And now, he adds, it appears that it may reduce the risks of some cancers."
Moore and his team found that exercise lowered the risk of developing:
cancer of the esophagus by 42 percent
liver cancer by 27 percent
lung cancer by 26 percent and
breast cancer by 10 percent.
Exercise also lowered the risk of a specific type of leukemia by 20 percent.
Moore told NBC that there are some possible explanations for the findings. First, exercise can lower hormone levels like estrogen. Lower levels of estrogen would lower the risk of breast and endometrial cancers. He adds that exercise helps maintain insulin and that may lower overall inflammation in the body.
However, one type of cancer puzzled the researchers.
They found that exercise increased the chance of developing prostate cancer by five percent. But they wrote that they could not explain the connection.
The researchers also found that people who did heavier exercises had a slightly higher rate of skin cancer. This, they say, could be from more sun exposure.
Now, how exercise affects strokes.
The more fit a person is in middle age, the less likely he or she will have a crippling stroke after age 65.
This is the result of a new study by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
Doctors studied 20,000 men and women between the ages of 45 and 50. They found that those who were most fit from moderate to vigorous exercise had a 37 percent lower risk of a stroke than those who were least fit.
They say the lowered risk of a future stroke was present even when the subjects had other risk factors. These factors include high blood pressure and type-2 diabetes.
The researchers of this study say they want doctors to not ignore low levels of exercise and fitness as risk factors for a stroke.
This study was published in the latest issue of the medical journal called Stroke.
I'm Anna Matteo.
1.look at 看；考虑
He expected the girl to look at him in blank astonishment.
2.talk about 谈论
He went on to talk about his accident.
3.physical activity 体育活动
Physical activity encourages good health.
4.on average 平均
Our reps make on average six calls a day.
1.The researchers took into account how long they exercised per week, what they ate, if they were obese and if they smoked.
take into account 考虑；重视
We had to take into account the strategic implications of these events.
You must take into account the boy's long illness.
2.These factors include high blood pressure and type-2 diabetes.
blood pressure 血压
Both diet and exercise affect blood pressure.
Slip off your shirt and I'll take your blood pressure.
我们都知道运动有益身体健康 。但最近两项研究给出了更为具体的结论 。他们研究了运动如何降低癌症和中风这两大致死疾病的风险 。
一项研究显示，运动可以降低罹患13种癌症的风险 。另一项研究表示，中年人可以通过运动降低他们中风的概率 。
美国国家癌症研究所的史蒂芬·摩尔（Steven Moore）领导的研究团队对140多万人进行了分析 。
研究人员对欧美12家组织的参与者进行了调查 。参与人员分别汇报了自己1987年到2004年间的运动情况 。研究人员对参与者们平均追踪了11年来分析26种癌症的发病情况 。
多数参与者报告称平时会散步、跑步和游泳 。研究人员还询问他们每周的运动时长，饮食习惯，是否肥胖及是否吸烟 。
摩尔接受NBC新闻采访时解释说，运动“能帮助我们降低患心脏病和糖尿病的风险 。”运动能使人长寿 。他继续补充说，而现在看来，运动还能降低罹患某些癌症的风险 。
摩尔对NBC表示，这一研究结果是有依据可循的 。首先，运动能降低激素水平，比如说雌性激素 。雌性激素水平较低会降低患乳腺癌和子宫内膜癌的风险 。他补充说，运动有助于维持胰岛素，这可以减少体内的炎症 。
他们发现，运动让患前列腺癌的机会增加了5% 。研究人员称无法解释这种关系 。
研究人员还发现，运动量越大，患皮肤癌的几率就越高 。他们表示，可能是因为经常暴露在日光下 。
医生对年龄在45岁到50岁的20000名男女进行了研究 。他们发现，适应中度甚至重度运动的人，其中风的风险比不适应的人低了37% 。
他们表示，未来中风的风险降低是可能的，即便这些研究对象存在其它风险因素 。风险因素包括高血压和二型糖尿病 。