Artificial Intelligence: Helpful and Dangerous
Computers and other machines have and will continue to change the way people do business and how we live.
Many researchers use the term artificial intelligence (AI) to describe the thinking and intelligent behavior demonstrated by machines. While AI can be helpful to human beings, scientists warn, it can also be a threat.
We live with artificial intelligence all around us. A few examples are iPhone's personal assistant Siri, searches on the Internet, and autopilot programs on airplanes.
AI is not new. But it is quickly getting more and more complex, and, well, more intelligent.
Stuart Russell teaches computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. He says humans should be sure to make AI products that we like.
"If we are going to make systems that are going to be more intelligent than us, it's absolutely essential for us to understand how to absolutely guarantee that they only do things that we are happy with."
In the future, Russell says, many of today's jobs that require a lot of physical labor will be replaced by machines with artificial intelligence. These include agricultural jobs, and ones with repetitive duties like telephone call centers. AI machines could also replace jobs like ones in the financial industry — jobs that require studying a lot of data.
This could lead to more questions.
"But if we replaced all the jobs that require human physical labor and then we replace all the jobs that require human mental labor, then you have to ask, well, 'What's left?'"
Russell sees artificial intelligence changing the economy and current way of life.
"Most people will be employed, possibly even self-employed, in providing individualized personal services to other human beings, that we won't have mass employment in manufacturing or in financial services."
He says that means the large factory, or large office building with thousands of people doing the same thing, will go away.
Guruduth Banavar is IBM's Chief Science Officer of Cognitive Computing. He sees a future where new jobs such as data engineering will be created.
"The future will require everybody to work with these learning reasoning machines. So I think the skill set for many of these jobs will end up being different in the future."
The health care industry is one area artificial intelligence is already changing. AI can process huge amounts of data, so doctors can use the most up-to-date information to diagnose and treat patients.
IBM's Watson technology is already in use at hospitals in North and South America, Europe and Asia.
Banavar says Watson helps doctors keep up with information.
"The difference between going to a doctor who has Watson versus not having Watson is very big, because when doctors, you go to a doctor today you might find somebody who is 10 years out of date."
There is also a dangerous side to artificial intelligence. One example is combining drone aircraft technology and AI to create autonomous weapons.
Stuart Russell is working to create international treaties to ban such weapons. He says the risk is that people will use this technology to develop a kind of "poor man's nuclear weapon."
"It is a race against time because the weapons are starting to emerge, the research is moving into development, development is moving into production..."
IBM's Banavar points out the value of artificial intelligence, including search engines and the autopilot function on planes.
The debate about whether artificial intelligence is good -- or bad -- for humans continues. Researchers agree there is no question that the technology is here, and will continue to change life on our planet.
I'm Anne Ball.
1.do business 经商
I used to do business with him.
2.artificial intelligence 人工智能
Everyone of us, old or young, should take a hand in physical labor.
3.physical labor 体力劳动
Don't quote my words out of context.
4.financial industry 金融业
The modern financial industry is composed of insurance, banking and security.
1.This could lead to more questions.
lead to 导致
That may lead to a serious split in our class.
Blindly copying others might very well lead to losses.
2.So I think the skill set for many of these jobs will end up being different in the future."
end up 结束；终结
I never thought I 'd end up working in a dump like this.
If you continue to steal you will end up in prison.
研究员们用“人工智能（AI）”一词来描述机器表现出的思维和智能行为 。科学家们警告称，尽管人工智能为人类带来便利，但也会成为一种威胁 。
人工智能渗透我们生活的方方面面 。包括苹果手机的智能语音功能Siri，互联网搜索引擎及飞机上的自动驾驶仪 。
人工智能并非近期出现 。然而，它高速发展的同时越来越复杂，也越来越智能 。
斯图尔特·罗素（Stuart Russell）在加州大学伯克利分校教授计算机科学 。他表示，应该制造我们喜欢的人工智能产品 。
罗素表示，未来很多需要大量体力劳动的工作岗位将被人工智能机器所替代 。包括农业领域，以及重复性工作如电话呼叫中心 。人工智能机器可能也将取代金融行业里研究海量数据的职位 。
格如德斯·巴拿瓦（Guruduth Banavar）是IBM认知计算部的首席科学官 。他认为未来会出现数据工程等新职位 。
“将来每个人都得跟这些学习、推理机器一起工作 。因此我认为，未来这类工作所需技能将与众不同 。”
医疗保健是深受人工智能影响的行业之一 。人工智能可以处理大量数据，医生就可以利用最新信息诊断和治疗病人 。
他说，“去医院看病时，医生是否使用沃森系统，其差异是非常大的 。因为你现在去看医生的话会发现有的医生已经落后时代10年 。”
人工智能也具有危险的一面 。比如结合无人机技术和人工智能制造出的自动化武器 。
罗素呼吁建立国际公约禁止此类新型武器 。他说人们可能会使用这种技术研发“穷人的核武器” 。
有关人工智能对人类是利是弊的争论仍在继续 。研究人员称，毫无疑问，人工智能已经出现并将继续改变我们的生活 。