VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):18世纪木乃伊中发现结肠癌突变基因
日期:2016-04-04 11:22

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Mummies Contain Clues to Colon Cancer
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health and Lifestyle report.
Colon cancer is linked with obesity, lack of exercise, and a poor diet high in processed foods.
However, scientists also have identified genetic mutations connected to the disease.
Researchers at Tel Aviv University are studying the evolutionary history of colon cancer. Microbiologist Rina Arbesfeld is with the university. She wanted to answer this genetic question: Where do these mutations come from? Our lifestyle? The environment? Our diet? Or did these mutations also exist a long time ago?
In other words, is the increase in the number of cancer cases today the result of natural evolution alone?
To answer this question, Arbesfeld turned to an unusual source: Hungarian mummies that were discovered in 1994 in a church.
These preserved bodies rested in a cool, dry climate for more than two and half centuries. They give a rare opportunities to research biologists.
An embalmer is a person who prepares a body for burial. Hungarian embalmers used different techniques than Egyptian embalmers.
In ancient Egypt, embalmers removed fluids and internal organs. This made mummification of the bodies happen quickly, over a period of two or three months.
Hungarians embalmers mummified more slowly. They left the fluids and organs intact. This means the mummies have retained tissue that could be better analyzed for evidence of disease.
Arbesfeld and her team isolated DNA samples from 22 mummies. They then sequenced the genetic material in the hunt for mutations. This was not easy. Arbesfeld says that after many tries, her team found one specific mutation in a gene called APC.
This gene is important. The APC gene is known to be involved in the development of cancer. Arbesfeld explains that the APC gene is what she calls the "gatekeeper" for the development of cancer.
Hungarian mummies have more tissue intact for research purposes.
Hungarian mummies have more tissue intact for research purposes.
This information lead Arbesfeld to this hypothesis: If our ancestors with the genetic mutation for colon cancer lived long enough, they would have developed the disease, just like us.
Arbesfeld says her next step is to sequence samples from other sources for a larger follow-up study. She says understanding our genetic past can better explain the present.
And understanding a disease's genetic past can help to handle the disease's future.
Cancer of the color kills about 700,000 people a year worldwide. However, it is highly treatable when found early.
This study was published in the journal PloS ONE.
I'm Anna Matteo.

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词汇解析

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1.colon cancer 直肠癌;结肠癌

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Some research suggests a link between this abnormal cell growth and colon cancer.

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有研究表明结肠癌与这种不正常的细胞生长有关].~;5NAl#KL(!,v0xJ

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2.be linked with 与...相关

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Her career was inextricably linked with his.

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她的事业是和他的事业紧密联系在一起的MzsH.ZapH[h

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3.poor diet 不良的饮食习惯

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A poor diet has lowered his vitality.

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营养不良的饮食削弱了他的活力3ypAlE83#_7j

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4.processed food 加工过的食品

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A whole food diet is healthy than eating processed foods.

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吃天然食品比吃加工食品更有益于健康^P4nLFbk^*

内容解析

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1.In other words, is the increase in the number of cancer cases today the result of natural evolution alone?

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In other words 换句话说

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In other words, what have I been afraid of all this time?

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换句话说,我这一直以来害怕的到底是什么呀?

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In other words, the United States could not be absolutely impartial in these new circumstances.

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换言之,美国在这些新形势下再不能绝对公平5e7Gw~FKE2bsOVK

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2.This made mummification of the bodies happen quickly, over a period of two or three months.

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a period of 一段时间

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Climate is summary of weather conditions over a period of years.

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气候是数年中气象条件的综合概况k)uM^P*BYrLa~iXcX|

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Money usually depreciates in value over a period of years.

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金钱通常在一些年后贬值uei2sh(iEdA=qh

参考译文

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18世纪木乃伊中发现结肠癌突变基因
结肠癌与肥胖、缺乏锻炼、经常吃精细食物的不良饮食息息相关snQvp_(S5N_
然而,科学家还检测到基因突变与这种致命的疾病有关RXE[-Ct5R7,!r&t
以色列特拉维夫大学的研究者目前正研究结肠癌的进化历史RI5@[(8Af7(jf=~R%。里娜·阿贝斯菲尔德是该大学的微生物学家QxQpYd[Qxkmg_EQ%-P+。她想就以下几个基因问题进行阐述:这些基因突变来自哪里?是因为我们的生活方式吗?还是环境?或者是饮食?基因突变是很久之前就已经存在了吗?

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木乃伊基因突变.jpg
也就是说,当今癌症病例的不断增加难道是自然进化的结果吗?为回答这个问题,阿贝斯菲尔德开始将重点研究一个非同寻常的资料来源:1994年在教堂里发现的匈牙利木乃伊8qh6YrrBV)-RfPAmtS
这些木乃伊已经在凉爽干燥的环境中保存了近250年了s*y)r^ax+#8zo*UPs。它们为生物学家提供了难得的研究机会|%rsCoK,nsTJ
入殓师指为死者化妆整仪后将其纳入棺中的职业N[B61+u2,4uky@^sh*。匈牙利入殓师会使用不同于埃及的入殓方法V1UP|SCR%sX-+RseSKE
在古埃及,入殓师需将死者的体液和内脏取出V+Zc&[u!oo(。这样躯体会在2-3个月时间内迅速“木乃伊化”(rIZ;vRJlE
而匈牙利入殓师使尸体“木乃伊化”的时间则慢很多xQymWpCI++p3zl+。他们完整地保留死者的体液和器官YSW9~tj%fon。这意味着木乃伊保存着完整的内脏组织,有利于更详细地分析疾病_u(cbS2KJ~Ty[H~nmLM
阿贝斯菲尔德与同事从22具木乃伊中抽离出了DNA样本4Y*V;%fqW]。随后为了寻找基因突变迹象,对所采取的基因材料进行排序5PFKCN&7I.BfzyLzpF。这并非易事4_n|MfrAV^u[X)D。阿贝斯菲尔德表示,小组进行了多次尝试之后,终于在结肠腺瘤性息肉基因(APC)中发现了一种特殊的基因突变XtIh#=7B2~hl.r@tx
这种基因对她们的研究十分重要t|vDneo-EGPe;UHH;。APC基因与癌症的发展过程有关)_REhEk_T-Fh[)xBh-7J。阿贝斯菲尔德解释道,APC基因就是她所说的癌症发展的“看门人”hTkBnx@dRfwG;r|)
阿贝斯菲尔德由此提出一种假说:如果,我们那些基因突变的祖先寿命足够长,他们也会像我们一样患结肠癌Z3gd(YTh[xLnU%70
阿贝斯菲尔德还说,接下来会进一步追踪调查,对其它资料源样本进行排序PV+(.)n@4H8G]87lo(y。她表示,了解基因发展史有利于我们更好的研究当今的基因领域k4eG(EV-%D19wxgg._)。了解过去的疾病基因史有助于我们更好地掌握疾病的“发展前景”JeOw23RNEBJbYldo
全球每年死于结肠癌的患者达70万HXv7zb|BcU。但是,早期结肠癌治愈率很高8K@[Wqp-T(
此研究报告刊登在《公共科学图书馆期刊》*Op%t)PGIu
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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • tissuen. (生物的)组织,织物,薄绢,纸巾
  • evidencen. 根据,证据 v. 证实,证明
  • identifiedadj. 被识别的;经鉴定的;被认同者 v. 鉴定(id
  • impartialadj. 公平的,不偏不倚的
  • genen. 基因
  • absolutelyadv. 绝对地,完全地;独立地
  • isolatedadj. 分离的,孤立的
  • internaladj. 国内的,内在的,身体内部的
  • unusualadj. 不平常的,异常的
  • containvt. 包含,容纳,克制,抑制 vi. 自制