France Bans Stores from Trashing Unsold Food
France has become the first country to ban supermarkets from throwing away unsold food.
Legislators passed the law in February. The law requires supermarkets to donate unsold food to charities and food banks.
If supermarkets do not obey the law, they face a $4,000 fine.
The new law is part of France's efforts to rethink consumption practices.
Each year, France throws away about 7 million tons of food. That is one-fifth of the amount of food bought each year. Along with individual consumers, restaurants and stores add to the food waste.
Other European countries are also making efforts to reduce food waste. In Denmark, a new "waste" supermarket has opened, where customers can buy surplus - or leftover - food for cheaper prices.
Arash Derambarsh is a municipal councilor in a Paris suburb. He started a petition for parliament to adopt the supermarket food waste law.
"The situation is very simple," he said. "On the one hand, we have supermarkets that throw away kilos of unsold food every day. On the other, faced with this absurdity, we have millions of poor people in France.
Derambarsh published a book called Manifesto Against Waste. In the book, he wrote about time as a poor student barely able to pay for rent. "I was hungry and ashamed of admitting it. I wanted to turn it into a positive experience so others would not end up in this situation."
Derambarsh is now campaigning for the European Union to adopt similar supermarket waste laws. He is also urging the United States and other countries to adopt such measures, too.
Reactions of charities
Yet the reaction among some charities and supermarkets in France shows how complex the issue of food waste really is.
Some people welcomed the new law. Louise Saint-Germain is president of a small non-governmental organization called, in English, A Hand Stretched Out For Tomorrow. She said the increase in donation in will allow her group to "feed more people and provide a more diversified food basket."
But others are worried the law will lead to more donations than they can handle. Aline Chassagnot manages a Salvation Army store.
"We simply don't have the technical and logistical ability to distribute more food to more people. And we're not the only ones," she said.
Chassagnot said France needs to consider larger issues related to consumption and sharing.
"Yes, there's waste and there are enough poor people around," she said. "But really taking into account a person's needs and dignity might mean another way of thinking that's not so simple."
Many large supermarkets in France argue that the law doesn't really change much. The director of one Carrefour supermarket in western Paris says her store has been donating unsold food to charities for years.
Nothing is wasted, the director said. In the kitchen, chefs put day-old bread products into syrup, then pour almond paste on them, turning them into new desserts. Rotten raspberries are picked out of unsold tubs, and the good ones are reused in tarts.
And, food that is damaged or past its shelf life is turned into biofuel, the director added. The biofuel helps power supermarket trucks.
But other French stores reportedly put bleach onto unsold food. That chemical makes the food inedible.
I'm Ashley Thompson.
1.throwing away 扔掉；丢弃
He wiped the desk clean, throwing away an empty cigarette pack and some bits of paper.
2.the amount of ...的数量
The amount of the fine must be specified.
3.taking into account 考虑到；将...纳入考虑范围
I’m not even taking into account compounding interest over the next 30 years!
4.pay for 赔偿；为...付出代价
Loss of independencewas a high price to pay for peace.
1.And, food that is damaged or past its shelf life is turned into biofuel, the director added.
turned into 转变；变成
Pearl Harbor and vicinity had been turned into complete chaos.
He stepped off and turned into a narrow lane.
2.Chassagnot said France needs to consider larger issues related to consumption and sharing.
related to 与...有关
Have you studied any courses related to the post you are applying for?
I briefly related to him what had transpired.
立法机构于今年2月份通过了该法令 。法令规定各大超市须将未售罄的食物捐赠给慈善机构以及食物收容机构 。
法国每年丢弃的食物高达700万吨 。丢弃的食物总量约占购买食物总量的五分之一 。除个体消费者外，餐馆和商店的不节制现象也加剧了食物浪费的程度 。
其他的欧洲国家也正努力采取措施减少食物浪费 。例如：丹麦开设了一家“临期产品”的超市，消费者可以以优惠的价格买到其他超市未售完或者剩余的食物 。
Arash Derambarsh是巴黎郊区的市政议员 。他起草了一份请愿方案，要求议会制定“禁止超市丢弃食物”的相关法律 。
“很简单”，他说道 。“一方面，大部分超市每天都会丢弃几公斤未售罄的食物；另一方面，在这种极其不合理的情况下，法国仍然生活着数百万的穷人 。”
Derambarsh还出版了《反对浪费宣言》一书 。书中提及自己学生年代的窘迫，几乎没钱交房租 。他说：“虽然饥饿，但羞于承认饥饿的事实 。”我想把这种情况变成一种积极的体验，这样别人就可能不必再面临这种可怕的局面 。”
Derambarsh目前正在呼吁其他的欧洲国家采取类似的法律 。此外，他正在敦促美国以及其他国家采取相应的措施 。
有的人对该法律赞不绝口 。Louise Saint-Germain是小型非政府组织“向明天伸出一只手”（A Hand Stretched Out For Tomorrow）的主席 。她表示食品捐赠数量增加能够让组织“养活更多人，并提供更加多样化的食品篮子” 。
但其他人担心这项法律可能会导致过多捐赠食物无法处理的问题 。Aline Chassagnot经营着一家救世军商店 。
“我们不具备将更多食物分配给人们的技术以及物流承载力 。而且存在这种周转问题的也不止我们一家商店 。”
“没错，浪费的现象很严重，穷人也有很多 。”她说道 。“但若考虑到个人所需和个人尊严等敏感问题，就意味着这是一件很复杂的事情 。”
法国很多大型超市都表示，该法律并不能让情况有多大改观 。巴黎西部的家乐福超市负责人称多年来她的超市一直都在捐赠未售罄的食品 。
该负责人表示，任何东西都用使用的价值 。厨师们将当天未售完的面包放到糖浆里，然后再覆上杏仁糊，新的甜点便出炉了 。将桶里坏掉的覆盆子挑出来，剩下的还可以制作蛋挞 。
负责人称，坏掉的食物或者过期食物则用来制作生物燃料 。生物燃料能够为超市的运输卡车提供动力 。
据报道，其他的法国超市将漂白剂添加到未售罄的食物中 。添加这种化学物质后，食物就不能再食用了 。