Scottish Whisky Tested as Alternative to Fossil Fuels
Waste products from a popular alcoholic drink could be used in the future to make biofuel.
Researchers say the new fuel, based on whisky, could reduce demand for oil. They say using less oil could cut pollution that studies have linked to climate change.
Scotland is the largest producer of whisky in the world. And a Scottish professor has found how to take the byproducts from distilling whisky and turn them into a form of alcohol called biobutanol. Biobutanol can be used as fuel.
Whisky comes from grain, such as corn, rye or wheat. First, the liquid is purified. It is heated until it becomes a gas. The gas is then cooled, and the resulting liquid collected.
Martin Tangney is director of the Biofuel Research Centre at Napier University in Edinburgh. He says less than 10 percent of what comes out can be considered whisky. The rest is mainly one of two unwanted byproducts: pot ale and barley.
Tangney says the two byproducts can be produced to create a new material: biobutanol.
He says the whisky-based biofuel provides more power than bioethanol, a fuel made from plants like corn or sugar cane. He says it has almost the same amount of energy as the gasoline used to power automobiles.
Tangney says bioethanol has only 70 percent of the energy produced from gasoline. He adds that automobile engines do not need to be changed for biobutanol to work.
The Scottish professor is also the founder of Celtic Renewables. The company produces biobutanol at a factory in Belgium. Tangney does not expect biobutanol to replace gasoline, but thinks the two fuels can be mixed together. He says it is possible the fuel may also be used in airplanes, ships and in heaters.
He says drivers would also be helping the environment by "reducing the oil that we consume by putting this into their cars."
Celtic Renewables has received $17 million from the British government to build a production facility in Scotland. The center is expected to be operational within three years.
I'm Jonathan Evans.
1.Waste products 废弃材料；废品
Waste products from factories can be made into road-building material.
2.based on 在...基础上；基于
It's based on sound thinking.
3.climate change 气候变化
For the first time, the IPCC also tries to peer into the longer-term effects of climate change.
How does sugar cane taste ?
1.Scotland is the largest producer of whisky in the world. And a Scottish professor has found how to take the byproducts from distilling whisky and turn them into a form of alcohol called biobutanol. Biobutanol can be used as fuel.
turn into 进入；使...变成
We saw their hope turn into a snare, and their rejoicing into weeping.
Watergate had begun to turn into a national obsession.
2.He says less than 10 percent of what comes out can be considered whisky. The rest is mainly one of two unwanted byproducts: pot ale and barley.
less than 能够；可以
The silicon chips are less than a millimeter thick.
It's less than five minutes' walk to a shopping mall．
研究人员表示研发以威士忌为基础的新燃料可以减少石油的需求量 。研究表明气候变化与石油的用量过度有关，因此石油用量减少，污染也会随之减轻 。
苏格兰是全球最大的威士忌生产国 。一位苏格兰教授将威士忌蒸馏后得到副产品，然后再从中提取出生物燃料——生化丁醇 。生化丁醇可以用作燃料 。
威士忌是由玉米、黑麦或小麦等谷物酿制而成的 。首先液体需要经过提纯 。然后再加热使之变为气体 。待气体冷却后，再将剩下的液体收集起来 。
马丁.唐尼（Martin Tangney）是爱丁堡龙比亚大学生物燃料研究中心的主任 。他说最终只有不到10%制成了威士忌 。剩下的这些都是没什么用处的副产品：酒糟和大麦 。
他说这种从威士忌中提炼出的生物燃料比以甘蔗、玉米等植物为原料的生物乙醇更加高效 。所提供的能量可以与驱动电摩的汽油相比 。
唐尼表示生物乙醇所产生的能量只是汽油的70% 。他还补充说汽车发动机不需要改用生化丁醇来运作 。
这位苏格兰教授还是凯尔特可再生能源公司（Celtic Renewables）的创始人 。该公司在比利时建厂制造生化丁醇 。唐尼称生化丁醇是不能完全替代汽油的，但是两种燃料可以混合使用 。他还表示飞机、轮船和加热器都可以将生化丁醇作为燃料 。
唐尼认为司机也要为保护环境出一份力，“减少石油的使用，改用生化丁醇 。” 。
英国政府为支持凯尔特可再生能源公司在苏格兰建厂并生产生化丁醇而提供了一千七百万美元的资金支持 。该厂将于在三年内建好并开始运作 。