Rats Trained to Find Land Mines in Cambodia
Experts estimate 20,000 people have been killed by land mines in Cambodia since the civil war ended in 1975. The organization that is leading the country's effort to remove the explosive devices is training rats to smell the mines. When the animals smell a mine, they make a mark on the ground and workers remove the deadly device.
Experts estimate more than one million land mines are still in the ground in Cambodia. More than 100 people were killed in land mine explosions in the country in 2013.
The Cambodian Mine Action Center is working to remove them. In addition to human de-miners, the group has trained 15 Gambian pouched rats, a larger rat than many people have seen. Some people keep them as pets. They are said to be intelligent and have a strong ability to smell. The rats are trained in Cambodia to detect the smell of explosives in land mines.
One mine detection manager for the group says he believes that when rats are used to find land mines, the de-mining operation goes faster, and the danger from exploding mines is sharply lowered. He says the rats work five or six times faster than humans.
Rats can examine an area of 100 square meters in less than 20 minutes. A human de-miner would need four to five days to examine the same area. In addition to working fast, the rats also do not weigh enough to cause a land mine to explode.
Trainers begin working with the rats when the animals are just one month old. A non-profit group in Belgium sent the rats to Cambodia from Tanzania.
A de-miner and rat trainer says when he began his job, he watched how his manager trained the rats. He says now he can train them to find the mines by smelling the air around them.
When a rat correctly identifies a mine by its smell, it scratches the ground and is given a banana as a reward.
I'm Jim Tedder.
1.land mines n.地雷
Unexploded land mines still lurk in hundreds of square kilometres of land that cannot be reclaimed for farming.
几十年的冲突、爆炸事件、逃亡难民以及基础设施的破坏付出了沉重的代价 。 未爆炸的地雷仍然埋藏在成百上千平方公里的土地中，这些土地是不能再用来耕种的 。
2.civil war 内战
The Civil War forced extension of the use of machinery.
3.explosive devices 爆炸装置
Migrants from large metropolitan areas to small town or rural environments end up with lower lung cancer rates than their counterparts who remain in populous places.
The final process in organic matter decomposition is known as humification.
1.In addition to human de-miners, the group has trained 15 Gambian pouched rats, a larger rat than many people have seen.
In addition to 除；另外；以外；之外
In addition to making art, he sold it, not only dealing his own work but that of other artists.
除了制造艺术，他也自己销售 他不仅经营自己的绘画，而且卖其他艺术家的作品 。
In addition to space and time, languages also shape how we understand causality.
除空间和时间外，语言还可以塑造我们 理解因果关系的方式 。
2.One mine detection manager for the group says he believes that when rats are used to find land mines, the de-mining operation goes faster, and the danger from exploding mines is sharply lowered. He says the rats work five or six times faster than humans.
faster than 速度快于...
More and more people buy cars because they think they are faster than bicycles.
Everything around her seemed to move faster than she did.
据专家估计，从1975年内战至今留下的地雷已造成柬埔寨20000人死亡 。该国负责清理剩余地雷的组织，通过训练老鼠利用其嗅觉进行地雷清除工作 。当老鼠闻到地雷气味时，它们会在地上做记号，这样人们就可以把这种致命的装置清除了 。
专家称，在柬埔寨地面仍然残留着一百多万个地雷 。仅2013年该国已有100多人死于地雷爆炸 。
柬埔寨排雷行动中心正在努力清理这些残余地雷 。除了人工排雷外，这个组织已先后培训了15批冈比亚巨鼠，这些巨鼠比常见的老鼠大得多 。甚至还有一些人把巨鼠当作宠物饲养 。据说这些巨鼠很聪明，嗅觉感知很强 。柬埔寨训练这些巨鼠嗅探地雷的炸药味 。
该组织的一个负责地雷检测的经理表示，他认为，利用老鼠来寻找地雷，排雷作业速度会更快，爆炸危险的系数也大幅降低 。他还称这些老鼠的工作效率比人类快五、六倍 。
当巨鼠只一个月大的时候，训练员就开始带着它训练了 。比利时的一个非营利组织将这些坦桑尼亚巨鼠运送到柬埔寨 。
一名排雷工人兼巨鼠训练员说，一开始工作，他就观察负责人如何训练巨鼠 。现在他也可以通过训练它们嗅探周围的空气发现地雷 。
当老鼠正确地辨认出地雷的气味时，它就在这个位置做下记号 。这时，作为奖励它可以得到一根香蕉 。