Now, the VOA Special English program Words and Their Stories.
Cold weather has a great effect on how our minds and our bodies work. Maybe that is why there are so many expressions that use the word cold.
For centuries, the body's blood has been linked closely with the emotions. People who show no human emotions or feelings, for example, are said to be cold-blooded. Cold-blooded people act in cruel ways. They may do brutal things to others, and not by accident.
For example, a newspaper says the police are searching for a cold-blooded killer. The killer murdered someone, not in self-defense, or because he was reacting to anger or fear. He seemed to kill for no reason, and with no emotion, as if taking someone's life meant nothing.
Cold can affect other parts of the body -- the feet, for example. Heavy socks can warm your feet, if your feet are really cold. But there is an expression -- to "get cold feet" -- that has nothing to do with cold or your feet. The expression means being afraid to do something you had decided to do. For example, you agree to be president of an organization. But then you learn that all the other officers have resigned. All the work of the organization will be your responsibility. You are likely to "get cold feet" about being president when you understand the situation.
Cold can also affect your shoulder.
You give someone the cold shoulder when you refuse to speak to them. You treat them in a distant, cold way. The expression probably comes from the physical act of turning your back toward someone, instead of speaking to him face-to-face. You may give a cold shoulder to a friend who has not kept a promise he made to you. Or, to someone who has lied about you to others.
A cold fish is not a fish. It is a person. But it is a person who is unfriendly, unemotional and shows no love or warmth. A cold fish does not offer much of himself to anyone.
Someone who is a cold fish could be cold-hearted. A cold-hearted person is someone who has no sympathy. Several popular songs in recent years were about cold-hearted men or cold-hearted women who, without feeling, broke the hearts of their lovers.
Out in the cold is an expression often heard. It means not getting something that everybody else got. A person might say that everybody but him got a pay raise -- that he was left out in the cold. And it is not a pleasant place to be.
This VOA Special English program Words and Their Stories was written by Marilyn Rice Christiano.
Maurice Joyce was the narrator. I'm Shirley Griffith.
1.distant adj. 遥远的；冷漠的；远隔的；不友好的，冷淡的
He found her cold, icelike, and distant.
2.unemotional adj. 不易动感情的；非感情的；无动于衷的
At first I kept cool and unemotional, then I began to cry.
3.self-defense n. 自卫；正当防卫；自卫权
Agnes was a battered woman who had killed, in self-defense, while temporarily insane.
1.You may give a cold shoulder to a friend who has not kept a promise he made to you.
keep a promise 遵守诺言
He said her actions speak louder than her words; she's never kept a promise.
They want to keep a promise to balance the federal budget by 2011.
几个世纪以来，身体的血液一直与情感存在着紧密的联系。例如，没有任何人类情感或感觉的人被称作冷血(cold-blooded) 。冷血的人做事非常残忍他们可能对其他人做出非常野蛮的事情，而不是出于偶然 。
例如，一份报纸说，警方正在搜捕一名冷血杀手(cold-blooded killer)。这名杀手谋杀了别人，不是出于自卫，也不是出于愤怒或恐惧反应 。他杀别人似乎没有任何原因，没有任何感情，似乎夺走别人的生命没有任何意义 。
寒冷也可以影响身体的其他部位。例如，脚 。如果你的双脚感到很冷，厚袜子可以让你感觉温暖一点 。但是get cold feet这个短语与cold和feet都没有任何关系 。
这个短语的意思是，害怕去做自己已经决定做的事情。例如，你同意做某个组织的主席 。但是后来得知所有其他官员都已经辞职 。该组织的所有工作都将是你的责任 。当你了解到形势之后，可能会害怕做这个组织的领导了 。
如果你拒绝和某人讲话，你会给某人一个cold shoulder。你对他们非常疏远，非常冷淡 。这个短语可能来自这样一种举动：你不想跟某个人说话时，会转过你的背 。当一个朋友没有遵守诺言时，你可能会疏远他 。或者，如果有人向其他人说了关于你的谎话，你可能也会疏远他(give a cold shoulder to) 。
cold fish并不是一条鱼，而是指人，是指一个不友好，没有感情，没有任何爱心和热情的人。cold fish(冷冰冰的人)不会为别人提供任何帮助 。
冷冰冰的人可能会非常无情(cold-hearted)。现在，无情的人指的是没有任何同情心的人 。最近几年的一些流行歌曲唱的就是一些冷血的男女毫无感情地伤了自己爱人的心 。
Out in the cold是经常听到的一个短语，意思是没有得到其他每个人都有的东西。一个人可能说，除了他之外其他人都加薪了，他被忽视了(out in the cold) 。在这里待的不愉快 。