From VOA Learning English, this is In the News.
Sunni Muslim militants have been putting pressure on the Iraqi capital, Baghdad. Officials in both Baghdad and Washington are concerned about the militant group ISIL -- the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant. The recent successes of the group also are of concern to al-Qaida, its one-time ally.
Western officials once thought of al-Qaida as the world's leading terror organization. Last winter, al-Qaida leaders disowned ISIL and its leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, for refusing to obey orders. They criticized his goal of creating a borderless caliphate, or Islamic state, across parts of Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon.
On Sunday, in an audio recording, ISIL declared itself an "Islamic State" without the words "Iraq and the Levant." The group named its chief as "the caliph," or head of state, and "leader for Muslims everywhere." After the announcement, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi asked all Muslims to move in and join the fighting in Iraq and Syria.
The declaration of the caliphate is likely to intensify the dispute between ISIL and al-Qaida. Aaron Zelin is a Middle East expert. He wrote that, "The two groups are now in an open war for supremacy of the global jihadist movement." In his words,
"ISIL holds an advantage, but the battle is not over yet." The Washington Institute for Near East Policy reported his comments.
With its recent success in Iraq, ISIL has increased its standing among jihadi or Islamist groups worldwide.
Ansar Bait al-Maqdis is a jihadist group based in the Sinai Peninsula. It has been supportive of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. The group claimed responsibility for a suicide bombing in Egypt earlier this year. The attack killed three South Koreans and injured more than 10 other people.
In North Africa, Ansar al-Sharia groups have published pro-ISIL messages on the Internet. Jihadists in the Gaza Strip have also expressed support for the ISIL leader.
Charles Lister is a visiting fellow with the Brookings Doha Center. He says the declaration of a caliphate by ISIL "poses a huge threat to al-Qaida and its long-time position of leadership of the international jihadist cause."
In his words, "taken globally, the younger generation of the jihadist community is becoming more and more supportive of ISIL.
We will very likely find ourselves in a dualistic position of having two competing international jihadist representatives --al-Qaida, with a now more locally-focused and gradual approach to success; and the Islamic State, with a hunger for rapid results and total hostility for competition."
The pressure on Iraq's central government is more immediate. The government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has asked the United States for airstrikes against the ISIL without success. The Iraqis are now turning to Russia for help.
Lukman Faily is the Iraqi ambassador to the U.S.
He says "We have a need. There is a void. If the U.S. can't fill that void, whomever is available -- including Russia -- then they are welcome to fill that void."
President Barack Obama is not taking any chances. On Monday, he announced he is sending more troops to Iraq to protect the U.S. embassy and the Baghdad airport. The troop deployment brought to nearly 800 the number of U.S. forces in Iraq.
And that's In the News from VOA Learning English.
I'm Christopher Cruise.
1.disown vt. 断绝与…的关系
The boy is so wicked that his father disown him.
2.intensify vt.& vi.（使）增强，（使）加剧
You must intensify your sense of responsibility.
3.supremacy n. 至高无上；最高权力
America's eventual supremacy has been predicated incessantly.
4.standing n. 地位
He has improved his country's standing abroad...
1.After the announcement, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi asked all Muslims to move in and join the fighting in Iraq and Syria.
Police moved in to disperse the crowd...
2.The Iraqis are now turning to Russia for help.
They turn to the religious quarter for consolation.
逊尼派穆斯林激进分子不断向伊拉克首都巴格达施加压力。巴格达和华盛顿官员均对ISIL——伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国感到担忧 。该组织最近取得的成功也引起了其曾经的盟友基地组织的担忧 。
西方官员曾经认为基地组织是世界最大的恐怖组织。去年冬季，基地组织以拒绝服从命令为由与ISIL及其头目阿布·巴克尔·巴格达迪(Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi)断绝了关系 。他们批评了巴格达迪在伊拉克，叙利亚，约旦和黎巴嫩范围内建立无国界的伊斯兰国的目标 。
周日，在一段录音中，ISIL宣布自己为“伊斯兰国”，而不再带有“伊拉克和黎凡特”的字样。该组织把自己的领袖命名为“哈里发”，或者国家元首，“各地穆斯林的领袖” 。宣布该决定之后，巴格达迪要求所有穆斯林行动起来，参加伊拉克和叙利亚的战争 。
这位伊斯兰教主的宣布可能会加剧ISIL和基地组织之间的冲突。Aaron Zelin是一位中东问题专家 。他写道：“这两个组织现在已经进入争夺全球圣战运动最高权威的全面战争 。”用他的话说，“ISIL掌握着优势地位，但是战争还没有结束 。”华盛顿近东政策研究所报道了他的评论 。
艾马格迪斯是位于西奈半岛的一个圣战组织。他们一直支持巴格达迪 。该组织宣称为今年年初埃及的自杀式爆炸袭击负责 。该袭击造成3名韩国人死亡，超过10人受伤 。
Charles Lister是布鲁克金多哈中心的访问学者。他表示，ISIL哈法里的宣布“向基地组织及其在全球圣战事业中的领导地位造成了巨大的威胁 。”
伊拉克中央政府面临的压力更加直接。政府总理马利基请求美国对ISIL实施空袭，美国未答应该请求 。伊拉克人现在向俄罗斯请求帮助 。
他表示，“我们有需求。该需求未得到满足 。如果美国不能填补这个空白，无论是谁——包括俄罗斯，他们都非常欢迎他们来填补这个空白 。”
奥巴马总统不想冒任何风险。周一，他宣布向伊拉克派遣更多军队来保护美国大使馆和巴格达机场 。这次军队部署将美国驻伊拉克军队人数增加到接近800人 。