This is Phil Murray with Word and Their Stories, a program in Special English on the Voice of America.
We tell about some common expressions in American English.
A "leatherneck" or a "grunt" do not sound like nice names to call someone. Yet men and women who serve in the United States armed forces are proud of those names. And if you think they sound strange, consider "doughboy" and "GI Joe."
After the American Civil War in the 1860s, a writer in a publication called Beadle's Monthly used the word "doughboy" to describe Civil War soldiers. But word expert Charles Funk says that early writer could not explain where the name started.
About twenty years later, someone did explain. She was the wife of the famous American general George Custer. Elizabeth Custer wrote that a "doughboy" was a sweet food served to Navy men on ships. She also said the name was given to the large buttons on the clothes of soldiers. Elizabeth Custer believed the name changed over time to mean the soldiers themselves.
Now, we probably most often think of "doughboys" as the soldiers who fought for the Allies in World War I. By World War II, soldiers were called other names. The one most often heard was "GI," or "GI Joe." Most people say the letters GI were a short way to say "general issue" or "government issue." The name came to mean several things: It could mean the soldier himself. It could mean things given to soldiers when they joined the military such as weapons, equipment or clothes. And, for some reason, it could mean to organize, or clean.
Soldiers often say, "We GI'd the place." And when an area looks good, soldiers may say the area is "GI." Strangely, though, "GI" can also mean poor work, a job badly done.
Some students of military words have another explanation of "GI." They say that instead of "government issue" or "general issue," "GI" came from the words "galvanized iron." The American soldier was said to be like galvanized iron -- a material produced for special strength. The "Dictionary of Soldier Talk" says "GI" was used for the words "galvanized iron" in a publication about the vehicles of the early 20th century.
Today, a doughboy or GI may be called a "grunt." Nobody is sure of the exact beginning of the word. But the best idea probably is that the name comes from the sound that troops make when ordered to march long distances carrying heavy equipment.
A member of the United States Marines also has a strange name: "leatherneck." It is thought to have started in the 1800s. Some say the name comes from the thick collars of leather early Marines wore around their necks to protect them from cuts during battles. Others say the sun burned the Marines' necks until their skin looked like leather.
This Special English program Words and Their Stories was written by Jeri Watson.
I'm Phil Murray.
1.leatherneck n. 海军陆战队员
I did not know his nephew Jack became a leatherneck.
2.galvanized adj. 镀锌的，电镀的 v. 电镀；刺激（galvanize的过去式和过去分词形式）
corrosion-resistant galvanized steel.
3.doughboy n. 步兵；团子
1.Now, we probably most often think of "doughboys" as the soldiers who fought for the Allies in World War I.
fight for 为…而战，而奋斗
They took up arms and fought for their faith and liberty.
We fought for the right of access to government information.
leatherneck(海军陆战队员)或grunt(咕哝) 用来称呼某人听起来不像是个的好词。但在美国军队服役的男性和女性却对这种称呼引以为 。如果你认为它们听起来奇怪，想想doughboy(步兵)和GI Joe(特种部队)这两个词 。
在美国内战（南北战争）后的十八世纪六十年代，Beadle's月刊的一个撰稿人用了doughboy这个词来描述南北战争中的士兵。但词语专家Charles Frunk说那位撰稿人也无法说清楚这个名字是从哪儿开始使用的 。
大约20年后，有人做出了解释。她就是美国著名的将军George Custer的妻子 。
Elizabeth Custer夫人在她的文稿中称doughboy这个词指的是一种为舰艇上海军官兵供应的甜点。她还说这个词也倾向于指士兵军装上的大纽扣 。Elizabeth Custer夫人认为，这个词随着时间的推移代指士兵本身了 。
在二战时期，士兵用其他词表示。最常听到的就是GI或GI Joe 。大多数人认为GI是general issue或government issue的缩写 。这个词有几种意思 。可以是指士兵本身 。也可以指士兵参军后下发物品，如武器，装备或衣服 。另外，由于某种原因，它也可以是组织，或者打扫的意思 。
士兵们常说，“我们占领了该地”。当某个区域看着不错，士兵们也会说该区域是“很好” 。然而奇怪的是，GI也可以指糟糕的任务，做的不好的工作 。
一些军事词语的研究者对GI还有别的解释。他们称GI既不是government issue，也不是general issue，它是galvanized iron的缩写 。美军士兵被说成是像白铁皮一样，一种产生特殊力量的物质 。士兵常用语字典称，在20世纪早期一份关于车辆的刊物中GI被称为是白铁皮 。
时至今日，doughboy或GI可能会被称为grunt。没人能肯定这个词是什么时候开始使用的 。但是，最合理的解释是，这个词来自部队在负重长途行军过程中发出的声音 。
美国海军陆战队员同样有个奇怪的名字——leatherneck。这个词被认为是在18世纪出现的 。有人认为这个词出自早期陆战队员围着的厚厚的皮领子，在战斗中保护脖子不受伤 。也有人说，太阳把海军陆战队员脖子上的皮肤烤的就像皮革一样 。