Now, the VOA Special English program, Words and Their Stories.
Almost all American cities have nicknames. They help establish a city's identity. They can also spread unity and pride among its citizens.
Two east coast cities -- Philadelphia and Boston -- were both important in the early history of the United States. Philadelphia is best known as "The City of Brotherly Love."
Fireworks explode over the Philadelphia Museum of Art during an Independence Day celebration, Thursday, July 4, 2013, in Philadelphia. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)
In 1681, King Charles the Second, of England, gave William Penn a large amount of land to establish a colony. The king named the colony Pennsylvania in honor of Penn's father. William Penn was a Quaker. He brought his beliefs about equality, religious freedom and brotherly love to this new land. Penn was also an expert in Latin and Greek. He established a city and named it Philadelphia, which is Greek for "brotherly love." An ancient city called Philadelphia was also noted in Christianity's holy book, the Bible.
Philadelphia became the social, political and geographical center of the American colonies. In the late 1700s, many events that took place in Philadelphia gave birth to the American Revolution and independence. For example, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were signed in the city. Philadelphia was the temporary capital of the new nation from 1790 to 1800.
Some of Philadelphia's other nicknames are "The Quaker City," "The Cradle of Liberty" and "The Birthplace of America." Philadelphia is a long name. So many people just call it "Philly."
A Philly cheese steak
Boston is another important city. It is one of the oldest cities in the United States. In 1630, Puritan settlers from England established Boston in what would become the state of Massachusetts.
Several major events took place in Boston before and during the American Revolution. You may have heard of the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party and the Battle of Bunker Hill.
So, like Philadelphia, Boston is called "The Cradle of Liberty." Another nickname is "The Cradle of Modern America."
Re-enactors march away from the Old State House following a public reading of the United States Declaration of Independence, part of July Fourth Independence Day celebrations, in Boston, Massachusetts July 4, 2013.
However, Boston's most famous nickname is "Beantown." But it was not because the city grew a lot of beans. In the 1700s, Boston was a major trading center. It received a lot of sugarcane from the West Indies. Beans baked in molasses -- a sugar product -- became a favorite food in the city. Today, no companies there make Boston baked beans. Restaurants in Boston rarely serve it. But many Americans eat this tasty dish at home.
This program was written by Shelley Gollust. I'm Barbara Klein. You can find more Words and Their Stories at our website, voaspecialenglish.com.
1.brotherly adj.兄弟般的 adv.兄弟一样地
He has a very brotherly manner towards the little boys.
2.molasses n.糖浆, 糖蜜
You may put some molasses on the bread.
3.cradle n. 摇篮；发源地；发祥地；支船架
The baby was rocked asleep in the cradle.
4.tasty adj. 美味的；高雅的；有趣的
I found it quite tasty, light and not greasy.
1.The king named the colony Pennsylvania in honor of Penn's father.
in honor of 向…致敬，向…表示敬意；为庆祝…
They ran up a flag in honor of the president's visit.
A banquet was given in honor of the distinguished guests.
2.In the late 1700s, many events that took place in Philadelphia gave birth to the American Revolution and independence.
give birth to 生(孩子)；产(仔)；生产，生育；引起；产生，造成，使发生
She gave birth to a fine healthy baby.
The scientist's experiments gave birth to a new drug.
1681年，英王查理二世给威廉·佩恩一大片地来建立殖民地。国王为了纪念佩恩的父亲，将殖民地命名为宾夕法尼亚 。佩恩是贵格会教徒，他将自己关于平等、宗教自由和兄弟之情的信念带到了这片新土地 。佩恩还是拉丁语和希腊语的专家，他建立了一座城市，取名为费城，在希腊语中意思是“兄弟之情” 。基督教《圣经》中也有一座古老的城市叫费城 。
费城成了美洲殖民地的社会、政治和地理中心。在18世纪晚期，费城发生了许多大事件，并催生了美国革命和独立 。比如，独立宣言和宪法就是在这里签署的 。1790年到1800年间，费城还是美国这个新国家的临时首都 。
不过，波士顿最有名的别名是豆城（Beantown），但这并不是因为这里盛产大豆。18世纪时，波士顿是个重要的贸易中心，接纳了来自西印度的大量甘蔗 。大豆在糖浆中烘烤后就成了波士顿最受欢迎的食物 。今天，这里没有哪家公司生产波士顿闷烤豆，波士顿的餐馆也很少提供这种食物，但许多美国人在家里做这道美食 。
本次节目作者Shelley Gollust，我是Barbara Klein，你可登陆网站voaspecialenglish.com获得更多词汇典故。