From VOA Learning English, this is IN THE NEWS.
Americans continue to follow reports on people and events linked to a bomb attack more than a week ago during the Boston Marathon.
Two young men are accused of carrying out the attack. The two are brothers. The surviving suspect told investigators that he and his older brother had planned to drive to New York City to explode more bombs. Nineteen year old Dzhokhar Tsarnaev spoke from a hospital where he was taken after his capture.
His older brother, Tamerlan Tsarnaev, died last week after a gun fight with police. He was 26 years old.
Police say the brothers caused two explosions near the finish line for the race. The explosions killed three people, including an eight-year- old boy and wounded more than 250 others.
The Tsarnaev brothers came to the United States with their family as refugees from the Chechen conflict with Russia.
Silvia Dominguez teaches sociology at Northeastern University in Boston. She says it is important to note that the Tsarnaev brothers were not immigrants, but refugees forced from their homeland by danger and conflict. She says refugees carry strong beliefs about the conflicts they fled. She says this is especially true when they leave areas where they experienced unfair treatment.
"The ideology around them is very significant and very powerful. And, there is an aspect of injustice that is very difficult to not want to act on."
Russian officials had warned America's Federal Bureau of Investigation about the older brother after he visited Russia for six months last year. American investigators have questioned the mother and father in Dagestan, where they now live separately. The investigators wanted to learn if Tamerlan Tsarnaev had contacts with Islamist extremists.
Professor Dominquez says it is possible that the older brother never developed an identity as an American because he left the Caucasus area during the Chechen conflict. She says young refugees know they were lucky to get out but also know that many others could not escape.
She says those who leave at a young age need to have a sense of belonging in their new country. She says it is very important to have activities to get young refugees involved.
"You know this is not just in the United States. It's any country that receives refugees."
Television broadcasts show Zubiedat Tsarnaeva arguing that her sons did not carry out the crimes. She says accusations against them are false and part of a plot.
Enrique Pumar teaches sociology at the Catholic University of America in Washington. His recent research deals with migration and violence. He notes that the Tsarnaev family was divided with the father and mother in Russia, and their sons in the United States. He says it is much more difficult to adapt to a different country without the support of a family or a community.
"A lot of times immigrants that are alone and don't have a community and support group oftentimes they suffer from status deprivation. They tend to be violent or at least deviant."
Police have charged Dzhokhar Tsarnaev with using a weapon of mass destruction. The crime is punishable by death.
And that's IN THE NEWS. I'm Steve Ember.
1.sociology n. 社会学；群体生态学
The sociological study of religion moved from the centre to the periphery of sociology.
2.plot n. 情节；图；阴谋
He tipped the plot to us.
3.deprivation n. 剥夺；损失；免职
Sleep deprivation can cause stress,loss of appetite and lethargy.
两名年轻人被控实施了这次袭击，他们是兄弟两 。幸存嫌犯告诉调查者，他和哥哥策划开车到纽约实施更多袭击 。19岁的Dzhokhar Tsarnaev在医院如是说，他在被捕后就被送往这家医院 。
他的哥哥Tamerlan Tsarnaev上周在与警察的枪战中死亡，时年26岁 。
Silvia Dominguez在波士顿东北大学教社会学，她说值得注意的是，Tsarnaev兄弟并非移民，而是由于危险和冲突被迫离开本国的难民 。她说难民对自己逃离的冲突有着强烈的信念，尤其是当他们逃离经历不公平待遇的地方 。
在Tamerlan去年访问俄罗斯6个月后，俄罗斯官员就对美国联邦移民局发出警告 。美国调查员调查了他们在达吉斯坦分开居住的父母，调查者想了解Tamerlan Tsarnaev是否与伊斯兰极端分子联系过 。
Dominquez教授说，由于Tamerlan是在车臣冲突期间离开高加索的，他可能根本没有形成美国人的意识 。她说年轻难民知道自己很幸运逃离，但也知道很多人无法逃离 。
电视节目播放Zubiedat Tsarnaeva辩解说儿子们没有犯罪，她说对他们的指控是捏造的，是阴谋的一部分 。
Enrique Pumar在华盛顿美国天主教大学教授社会学，他最近的研究与移民和暴力有关 。他说Tsarnaev一家被分开了，父母住在俄罗斯，而儿子们在美国 。他说没有家庭或社区的支持，很难融入新的国家 。
警方指控Dzhokhar Tsarnae使用大规模杀伤性武器，该罪名是要判死刑的 。