Now the VOA Special English program WORDS AND THEIR STORIES.
A nickname is a shortened form of a person's name. A nickname also can be a descriptive name for a person, place or thing. Many American cities have nicknames. These can help establish an identity, spread pride among citizens and build unity.
A few years ago, some marketing and advertising experts were asked to name the best nickname for an American city. The winner was the nation's largest city, New York. The top nickname was The Big Apple.
You might wonder how New York got this nickname. In the early nineteen seventies, the city had many problems. The number of visitors was falling. So a campaign was launched to give the city a new image. The head of the New York Conventions and Visitors Bureau decided to call the city, The Big Apple.
There are several explanations for where this name came from. Language expert Barry Popik studied the question and wrote about it on his website. He says John Fitz Gerald, a writer for a New York newspaper, used the name the Big Apple to mean New York in the nineteen twenties. Mister Fitz Gerald wrote about horse races. He heard the name used by men who worked at a racetrack in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Mister Fitz Gerald wrote: "The Big Apple. The dream of every lad that ever threw a leg over a thoroughbred and the goal of all horsemen. There's only one Big Apple. That's New York."
In horse racing, the expression meant "the big time," the place where large amounts of money could be won. The Big Apple became the name of a night club in the Harlem area of New York City in nineteen thirty-four. It also was the name of a popular dance and a hit song in the nineteen thirties.
But it is not the only nickname for America's largest city. Barry Popik's website lists almost one hundred nicknames that describe New York. The best known are the Capital of the World. Empire City. Gotham. The City So Nice They Named it Twice.
And the City That Never Sleeps. You can hear about the city in the song, "New York, New York" by Frank Sinatra.
This program was written by Shelley Gollust. I'm Barbara Klein. You can find more WORDS AND THEIR STORIES atwww.kekenet.com.
几年前，一些市场和广告专家受命提名最佳城市别名。获胜者是美国最大的城市，纽约 。最佳别名是“大苹果”(The Big Apple) 。
你可能会想，纽约怎么会得到这个别名。七十年代早期，纽约存在许多问题，致使游客数量下降 。市政府发起一项运动，赋予纽约新的形象 。纽约会议和游客署负责人决定将这个城市叫做“大苹果”(The Big Apple) 。
关于这个名字的来历有几种解释。语言专家Barry Popik对这个问题进行了研究，并发表在其网站上 。他说，二十年代，纽约一家报纸的作家John Fitz Gerald曾经使用“大苹果”(The Big Apple)来指代纽约 。Fitz Gerald写的文章是关于赛马的 。他听到路易斯安那新奥尔良赛马场的工作人员使用这个名字 。
在赛马中，The Big Apple的意思是"the big time"，在这里可以赢很多钱。1934年，“大苹果”(The Big Apple)成为纽约哈林街区一家夜总会的名字，也是三十年代一个著名的舞蹈和一首打榜热歌的名字 。
但是，这并不是美国这个最大的城市唯一的别名。Barry Popik的网站列举了大约100个用来描述纽约的别名 。其中最著名的是The Capital of the World(世界之都)，Empire City(帝国城)，Gotham(哥谭镇)，The City So Nice They Named it Twice 。还有The City That Never Sleeps(不夜城) 。你可以在这首歌中了解纽约的情况，由Frank Sinatra演唱的"New York, New York" 。
本期节目由Shelley Gollust编辑。我是Barbara Klein 。您可以登录可可英语网站了解更多节目 。
1.wonder v. 想知道，想弄明白
I wondered what that noise was...
2.launch v. 开展（重大活动）；发起，发动（军事袭击等）
Heavy fighting has been going on after the guerrillas had launched their offensive...
3.racetrack n. 跑道