优美歌声背后的秘密
日期:2018-09-15 05:38

(单词翻译:单击)

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The tiny brain of this zebra finch may help scientists answer questions on how people form words to talk.
这只斑胸草雀的小脑袋可以帮助科学家回答人类语言的形成方式。
Like humans, songbirds learn to vocalize by imitation.
与人类一样,鸣禽通过模仿来学会发声。
We're able to not only study the mechanisms of how vocal learning works in these songbirds,
我们不仅能够学习鸣禽学习发声的方法,
but translate those findings to humans.
还可以将这一发现转换到人类身上。
And the reason why is because we discovered that songbirds and humans
因为我们发现在鸣禽和人类身上,
have what we called convergent brain pathways in genes that are specialized in them that you don't find in things like chicken.
在我们的基因中都有趋同的大脑通路,你只会在鸣禽中发现,像鸡等动物是没有的。
Researchers from Rockefeller University in New York are using laser capture microscopy,
纽约洛克菲勒大学的研究人员正在使用激光捕获显微镜,
a method of isolating cells from microscopic regions of tissues and cells, to get an in-depth look at the songbirds' brains.
它可以将细胞从微观区域的组织和细胞中分离,深入研究鸣禽大脑。
Those images are helping them understand how signals from the birds' brains are similar to the process humans use when learning to talk.
这些图像帮助他们了解鸣禽大脑信号与人类在学习说话时的相似程度。
We find stuttering in songbirds, we can induce a Parkinson-like condition in them that causes stuttering
鸣禽也有结巴的现象,我们可以让其引发类似帕金森症状,这种疾病可以引发结巴,
and then we can use that to figure out how to repair.
之后拿出解决办法。

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And then try to induce that in a brain like of humans to see if we can repair those circuits.
之后引诱与人类大脑类似的大脑,看是否能够解决回路。
We're also trying to figure out ways to engineer brain circuits in a species that doesn't have that ability
我们试图在没有语言能力的物种上设计大脑回路,
to see if we can induce it or even enhance it. And if that works, we can actually try to translate that to humans as well.
看看我们是否能诱导它,甚至增强它,如果真的成功了,我们就可以转化给人类。
Jarvis says it will take years before the findings may be used to treat human speech impediments.
贾维斯说这些发现可能要花数年时间才能用于治疗人类语言障碍。
I've had this hypothesis for the last 10 years of how to engineer these brain circuits and
过去十年间,我一直在想我们该设计怎样的大脑回路,
predict what kind of genes we would find that specialize in the brain of humans and songbirds.
预测我们会发现哪种负责人类和鸣禽大脑的基因。
It took us, let's say, five to seven years to actually identify those genes,
发现这些基因我们用了五到七年,
and now I think it's gonna take us another five to seven years to actually figure out how to manipulate them.
我认为我们还要再花五到七年时间才能弄清楚如何操纵它们。
Songbirds could provide a window to the origins of speech disorders caused by autism, strokes and Parkinson's disease.
鸣禽或许能帮助我们找到自闭症,中风以及帕金森所引发的语言障碍原因。
Deborah Block VOA News.
VOA记者黛博拉·布洛克采访报道。

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