溺水的过程是怎样的
日期:2018-03-14 15:02

(单词翻译:单击)

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Hey there! Welcome to Life Noggin.
大家好!欢迎来到脑洞大开的生命奇想KN.yqGFR4tEO)d[
Every year, there are over 370,000 drowning deaths worldwide, with children under 5 being the most at risk.
全世界每年有超过37万人溺水死亡,其中5岁以下儿童最多!jNcAN%b_h
And with all the drowning deaths you see in movies and TV, it's no wonder that people are afraid of dying that way. But what's actually going on during that process?
你在电影和电视中都能看到溺水死亡事件,难怪人们会害怕这种死亡方式^!Bg|dj*dA。但是在这个过程中到底发生了什么呢?
溺水Well, firstly, drowning isn't like how you see it in the movies -- there's not a lot of thrashing around or yells for help.
首先,溺水不像你在电影里看到的那样——没有机会在水里翻腾或大喊救命0WN#wmG|a@3@9
Typically, it's a silent act, where the person's mouth sinks below the surface of the water and then reappears as they try to breathe.
一般来说,这时候是发不出声音的,人的嘴会沉到水面以下,浮上水面时又需要全力呼吸!~nQ5q!KE8#|X%ER.
Once they can no longer hold their initial breath and start to hyperventilate, they might aspirate water, triggering something called a laryngospasm.
一旦他们喘不过气开始过度呼吸,就有可能会吸入水,引发喉痉挛j_*6lYXjCD*N88-O8,r
This is where the person's vocal cords spasm, blocking their airways and protecting their lungs.
这时人的声带会痉挛,阻塞呼吸道,保护肺部_]7vPOox;3~8lo#p]%rT
However, it also inconveniently makes yelling for help significantly harder to do.
然而,这也造成大声呼救更加困难ACax|c!S1FiN
Since the person can't take in any fresh air, their oxygen supply starts to fall, potentially leading to a condition called hypoxia.
由于人不能吸入新鲜空气,氧气供应开始下降,可能导致缺氧sbKHr[|EwoYE]A@o
This is where there's not enough oxygen reaching the body's tissues.
没有足够的氧气到达身体组织g#ILPL1I7R7
And eventually, as the person becomes unconscious, there's a relaxation of their airway, allowing their lungs to fill with water.
最终,当这个人失去知觉时,气道会放松,肺部会灌满水)SG3xS&W(@lD|uO1f
Depending on how long the person has gone without air, varying levels of damage can occur.
人不能呼吸空气的时间长短不同,所受的损伤程度也不同6#1)bja~1b
For example, a 2013 study found that the likelihood of surviving with little to no brain damage was very low after being submerged for 10 minutes or more.
例如,2013年的一项研究发现,被淹没10分钟或者更长时间,而大脑几乎不受损伤,这种可能性非常低&9BGII~J0dW~COG(2
The lack of oxygen can also lead to cardiac arrest.
缺氧也会导致心脏骤停t2G1+Mhf=y#W[
So, basically what I'm saying is that drowning is absolutely terrifying -- so please wear your life jackets, kids -- they're cool and they'll keep you safe. I know I look fantastic in my floaties.
所以,我想说的就是,溺水是非常可怕的——所以请穿上救生衣,孩子们——救生衣很酷,还会保护你的安全bF~HtJ7hlY3。我知道我带上手臂圈很漂亮S%)0V*PgL2,XYbK0c+
On top of all of that, if the person is in really cold water, there's also the fear of hypothermia -- where the core body temperature falls below 35 degrees Celsius.
最重要的是,如果人在低温冷水中,恐怕也会出现体温过低的情况——即核心体温低于35摄氏度.Tk|8[FynOjY+Sf(
When hypothermia sets in, it'll cause the body to start shivering intensely and the person might act clumsy or confused.
当体温降低时,身体会开始剧烈地颤抖,而这个人可能会行动笨拙或意识不清N[[#t7vCH;
Their bodies slow down, including their respiration, heart, and metabolic rates. And eventually, they might lose consciousness and even die.
他们的身体活动会慢下来,包括呼吸、心脏和代谢率K,D8rV^^0Itb;(。最终,他们可能失去意识甚至死亡r_B7Tp3VNPNdzc(fe-7k
Let's all take a moment to mourn the loss of Jack from Titanic -- but come on, there was seriously enough room on that door for him too.
我们来哀悼一下泰坦尼克号上的杰克,但是,其实门板上也有足够的空间可以给他ANlIsy0FZ#QXpR)z&E8Q
While hypothermia is a serious threat, it may actually help to prevent the effects of hypoxia.
虽然体温过低是一种严重的威胁,但它实际上可能有助于防止缺氧的影响Ymrw9(;b[9#);
See, it can trigger the diving reflex, where blood vessels constrict and the heart rate slows and the blood is diverted to the parts of the body that need it the most, like the brain.
看,它会触发潜水反射,即血管收缩,心率减慢,血液被转移到最需要它的身体部位,比如大脑Tml@TuzOiAH
Hypothermia also decreases how much oxygen is needed by the body's tissues -- meaning that it can actually prolong survival and help prevent the tissue damage from hypoxia.
体温过低也会减少身体组织所需的氧气量——这意味着它实际上可以延长生存时间,并有助于防止缺氧引起的组织损伤c%Ouok^Bi8&Jn_F15BFD
In fact, hypothermia and the diving reflex is often cited as a big reason why some young children have been able to survive drowning after being under the water far more than 10 minutes.
事实上,经常有人认为,体温过低和潜水反射使得一些儿童溺水超过10分钟后仍能生还fBAX))YHy3&Y
That being said, do not try to replicate that yourself.
话虽如此,不要试图模仿hwmNL#0zZv6YW[aq8
It's definitely best to stick with those huge inflatable pool toys instead.
最好还是抓住那些巨大的充气泳池玩具吧Lc6ePLyv@9Y-3rjJSrww
I call dibs on the flamingo. Are you afraid of the water?
我骑在火烈鸟上了(X.O[-Zm[~WJ2#9l9GAG。你害怕水吗?
What life-threatening situation do you want us to talk about next?
接下来你想让我们谈谈哪种危及生命的情况?
This episode was a little bit morbid, so why don't we celebrate the fact that you exist!
这一集有点沮丧,所以我们可以庆祝你的存在啊!
If you want to know the odds of you being born and how lucky you are to be alive, check out this video.
如果你想知道你出生的几率,你能活下来有多幸运,请看这个视频+Z!V#~|epwG0
See, in most cases in order for you to be alive your parents had to meet.
看,在大多数情况下,要想让你活着,你的父母必须见面JTzjNV^Vyrx1wxo@tQ
Assuming that your mother could meet, let's say, one new person a day during her prime dating years, she would have met around 10,000 people.
假设你的母亲能在她年轻的时候每天遇到一个陌生人,她会遇到大约1万人B*MccB7R2=N
As always, I'm Blocko. This has been Life Noggin. Don't forget to keep on thinking!
我是宝高a~vhsGE9lnJY。这里是脑洞大开的生命奇想h@t;0F7-!4mYPr6(m。思考不要停!

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